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Table 1 General characteristics of the included articles (n = 23)

From: Are low-value care measures up to the task? A systematic review of the literature

First author Year of publication Country Aim Method Number retrieved Recommendation initiative
Measuresa Recommendations  
AGS Choosing Wisely AGSCW Workgroup [7] 2013 US To identify five services that physicians and patients should question. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
AGS Choosing Wisely Workgroup [34] 2014 US To identify another five services that physicians and patients should question. Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Amos [35] 2015 US To determine the prevalence of PIMs for older adults in Elimia-Romagna, Italy, using updated Maio criteria. Empirical analysis 0 16 Other
Bulger [36] 2013 US To identify five services that physicians and patients should question. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Chan [18] 2013 US To describe and critique the current state of overuse measurement. Review 37 122 Other
Colla [8] 2015 US To develop claims-based algorithms to estimate the prevalence of Choosing Wisely services and to examine the demographic, health and health care system correlates of low-value care at a regional level. Empirical analysis 11 0 N.A.
Elshaug [37] 2012 AUS To develop and apply a novel method for scanning a range of sources to identify existing health care services (excluding pharmaceuticals) that have questionable benefit, and produce a list that warrant further investigation. Review 0 174 Other
Halpern [38] 2014 US To present the Critical Care Societies Collaborative top 5 list in Critical Care Medicine and describe its development. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Hicks [39] 2013 US To identify five services that physicians and patients should question. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Kale [26] 2013 US The objective of this study was to determine whether the overuse and misuse of health care services in the ambulatory setting has decreased in the past decade. Empirical analysis 13 0 N.A.
Keyhani [40] 2013 US To compare rates of overuse in different health care systems and examine whether certain systems of care or insurers have lower rates of overuse of health care services. Systematic review 0 7 Other
Korenstein [41] 2012 US To perform an extensive search for studies of overuse of therapeutic procedures, diagnostic tests, and medications in the United States and describe the state of the literature. Extensive search 0 33 Other
Mathias [10] 2012 US To characterize performance on imaging-use measures, determine whether performance was consistent across measures, and identify hospital characteristics associated with highest-decile imaging use. Empirical analysis 4 0 N.A.
Morden [11] 2014 US To measure the prevalence and describe the geographic variation of short-interval (repeated in under 2 years) DXAs among Medicare beneficiaries and estimated the cost of this testing and its responsiveness to payment change. Empirical analysis 4 0 N.A.
Onuoha [42] 2014 US To develop a top 5 list of unnecessary medical services in anesthesiology. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Quinonez [43] 2013 US To produce top 5 lists. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Rouster-Stevens [44] 2014 US To create a pediatric rheumatology Top 5 list as part of the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation’s Choosing Wisely campaign. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Schuur [45] 2014 US To create a top-five list of tests, treatments, and disposition decisions that are of little value, are amenable to standardization, and are actionable by emergency medicine clinicians. Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Schwartz [2] 2014 US To develop claims-based measures of low-value services, examine service use (and associated spending) detected by these measures in Medicare, and determine whether patterns of use are related across different types of low-value services. Empirical analysis 26 0 N.A.
Segal [19] 2014 US To identify a set of possible indicators of overuse that can be operationalized with claims data and to describe variation in these indicators across the hospital referral regions (HRRs). Empirical analysis 20 0 N.A.
Wiener [46] 2014 US To create a top 5 list. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Williams [47] 2012 US To present the final five Choosing Wisely Don’t do recommendations, the rationale for these specific recommendations, and two other recommendations. Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
Wood [48] 2013 US To report on the CW top 5 list. Review + Delphi/consensus 0 5 CW
  1. AGS American Geriatrics Society, AUS Australia, CW Choosing Wisely, N.A. Not Applicable, PIM Potentially Inappropriate Medications, US United States
  2. aat least a numerator and denominator was specified