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Table 2 Level of evidence of low-value care measures

From: Are low-value care measures up to the task? A systematic review of the literature

Level of evidence Group A: Recommendation source Measure numbersa Count
 1 CW, NICE or USPSTF recommendations; Guideline; Literature evidence (review or clinical trial) 39, 40, 46 3
 2 CW, NICE or USPSTF recommendations; Literature evidence (review or clinical trial) 13, 14, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 44, 48, 50, 55, 77, 80, 90, 95, 103, 112, 115 20
 2 CW, NICE or USPSTF recommendations; Guideline 33, 53 2
 2 Literature evidence (reviews or clinical trial) 3, 21, 58, 76, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85, 89 10
 2 Guideline 54, 57 2
 3 USPSTF concludes that evidence is insufficient 101 1
 Unknown Literature: other compiled low-value service lists 47, 49, 113 3
 Unknown USPSTF recommendation not found 104, 107 2
 Unknown CW, NICE or USPSTF recommendations 34, 38, 43, 45, 51, 52, 59, 61, 84, 92, 98, 102, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 114 19
Level of evidence Group B: Institutional measure status Measure numbersa  
 1 NQF endorsed 5, 11, 16, 18, 41, 56, 62–67, 72, 73, 91, 93, 94, 96, 97 19
 2 AHRQ measure supported by a clinical practice guideline or other peer-reviewed synthesis of clinical research evidence and one or more research studies published in a National Library of Medicine (NLM) indexed, peer-reviewed journal 60, 69, 70 3
 2 AHRQ measure supported by a clinical practice guideline or other peer-reviewed synthesis of the clinical research evidence 1, 4, 55, 86 4
 2 CMS QualityNet 2, 7, 8, 9, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 37, 42, 99, 100 14
 3 NQF endorsement removed since April 2014 6, 10, 74, 75 4
 Unknown NQF endorsement not found 17, 71 2
 Unknown AHRQ measure/guideline not found 68, 79, 87 3
 Unknown CMS QualityNet under revision 15 1
 Unknown CMS not found 12 1
 Unknown BCBS AQC measures not found 35, 36 2
  1. AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, BCBS AQC Blue Cross Blue Shield, The Alternative Quality Contract, CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, CW Choosing Wisely, IOM Institute of Medicine, NICE National Institute for Clinical Excellence (UK): do not do recommendations, NQF National Quality Forum, USPSTF United States Preventive Services Task Force
  2. a: measure numbers are in correspondence with Additional file 2