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Table 3 Validity of the top five published low-value care measures

From: Are low-value care measures up to the task? A systematic review of the literature

  Preoperative cardiac tests for non-cardiac low-risk surgery Antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections Imaging for low-back pain Cervical cancer screening Imaging for sinusitis diagnosis
Number of measures included in review a 4 (measure no.: 42–44, 48) 7 (measure no.: 57–59, 62, 63, 65, 66) 8 (measure no.: 2–9) 3 (measure no.: 110–112) 4 (measure no.: 33, 35, 36, 59)
Measure criteria b
 Face validity c Yes: level of evidence is 2 Yes, level of evidence is 1 Yes, level of evidence is 1 Yes, level of evidence is 2 Yes, level of evidence is 2
 Coding/criterion validity Not found Not found Not found Not found Not found
 Construct validity Not found Not found Not found Not found Not found
Used in practice Yes, for payment determination (Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting) [49] Yes, in Physician Quality Reporting System [49] Yes, for payment determination (Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting) [49] Yes, in Physician Quality Reporting System [49] Not found
  1. a: Measure numbers corresponding with Additional file 2 between brackets
  2. b: Criteria for quality measures (AHRQ)
  3. c: For level of evidence also see Table 2