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Table 2 Determinants of RN hourly wage based on Heckman model§ in 2008 NSSRN data

From: The effect of prior healthcare employment on the wages of registered nurses

Dependent variable: Log of RN Hourly Wage Total Populationa (Initial Bachelor and Associate degree) Initial Bachelor degree Initial Associate degree
Weighted N = 2,242,238 Weighted N = 945,429 Weighted N = 1,296,809
Un-weighted N = 24,136 Un-weighted N = 10,345 Un-weighted N = 13,791
Explanatory variable (Reference category) Coefficient P-value Coefficient P-value Coefficient P-value
Experienceb 0.023 0.001*** 0.027 0.001*** 0.018 0.001***
Experience Square −4.52E-04 0.001*** −0.001 0.001*** −3.44E-04 0.001***
Prior healthcare job (no prior healthcare job)
 Manager 0.095 0.026** 0.123 0.083* 0.059 0.287
 LPN/LVN 0.076 0.001*** 0.143 0.034** 0.042 0.096*
 Allied health 0.006 0.787 0.050 0.180 −0.034 0.205
 Nursing aide 0.041 0.019** 0.066 0.006*** 0.013 0.591
 Clerk 0.007 0.842 0.022 0.670 −0.019 0.659
 Other −0.036 0.293 −0.011 0.826 −0.063 0.113
Experience × Prior healthcare job (no prior health related job)
 Manager −0.004 0.530 −0.010 0.313 0.004 0.680
 LPN/LVN −0.009 0.001*** −0.024 0.003*** −0.003 0.345
 Allied health −0.003 0.338 −0.010 0.066* 0.003 0.375
 Nursing aide −0.006 0.015** −0.009 0.01** −0.002 0.501
 Clerk 0.000 0.946 −0.004 0.572 0.005 0.425
 Other 0.002 0.678 −0.001 0.886 0.006 0.194
Experience Square × Prior healthcare job (no prior health related job)
 Manager −6.57E-05 0.736 1.23E-04 0.657 −3.12E-04 0.267
 LPN/LVN 1.98E-04 0.015** 0.001 0.005*** 5.57E-05 0.594
 Allied health 8.54E-05 0.329 2.40E-04 0.082* −6.55E-05 0.539
 Nursing aide 1.24E-04 0.049** 1.85E-04 0.04** 4.93E-05 0.529
 Clerk −4.51E-05 0.701 4.70E-05 0.769 −1.61E-04 0.379
 Other 6.89E-06 0.967 7.65E-05 0.781 −8.11E-05 0.575
Gender (Male) −0.099 0.001*** −0.131 0.001*** −0.080 0.001***
Marital Status (Married) −0.017 0.004*** −0.018 0.07* −0.017 0.028**
Highest RN/RN-related educationc
 Associate Reference   NA   Reference  
 Bachelor 0.044 0.001*** Reference   0.050 0.001***
 Master's 0.247 0.001*** 0.213 0.001*** 0.232 0.001***
Medical, surgical and other specialists per 1,000 population 0.047 0.001*** 0.042 0.001*** 0.049 0.001***
Primary care practitioners per 1,000 population −0.159 0.001*** −0.157 0.001*** −0.158 0.001***
Race - Other (white) 0.020 0.024** 0.030 0.009*** 0.009 0.466
Work Status (Full-time no-overwork)
 Part-time −0.077 0.001*** −0.085 0.001*** −0.072 0.001***
 Full-time overwork −0.121 0.001*** −0.128 0.001*** −0.117 0.001***
Work setting (Hospital)
 Nursing Home −0.141 0.001*** −0.145 0.001*** −0.135 0.001***
 Other setting −0.130 0.001*** −0.141 0.001*** −0.124 0.001***
Urban 0.038 0.001*** 0.023 0.102 0.043 0.001***
Constant 3.174 0.001*** 3.222 0.001*** 3.191 0.001***
Rho −0.106 0.001*** −0.124 0.008*** −0.094 0.011**
  1. NA not applicable, LPN/LVN Licensed Practical Nurses/Licensed Vocational Nurses
  2. * P < 0.1, ** P < 0.05, *** P < 0.01
  3. The additional covariates of 50 states (and Washington DC) in the regression model were not presented in this Table 2
  4. ‡ Logarithm form of Registered Nurse (RN) hourly wage; § Heckman’s Sample Selection model: The first-stage equation’s dependent variable was a dichotomous variable indicating working or not. The covariates uniquely included in the first-stage equation (i.e., excluded from the second-stage equation) were other household income, county-level characteristics (uninsurance rate and unemployment rate), age (five categories), student status (full-time, part-time, or no student) and children at home (four categories). Another set of covariates included in both the first-stage equation and the second-stage equation were six categories of prior healthcare employment (manager, LPN/LVN, allied health, nursing aide, clerk, and all other healthcare positions), race, gender, marital status, highest nursing degree, county-level characteristics (primary care practitioners per 1,000 population; and medical, surgical and other specialists per 1,000 population), indicators for 50 states (and Washington DC), and urban area. The second-stage equation’s estimates were presented in this Table 2. These Heckman models were justified by the statistically significant rho, reported in the bottom row of this Table 2; † NSSRN: nationally representative National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses;
  5. aAll actively licensed RNs in the NSSRN 2008 public use data file, excluding RNs who resided outside the United States and RNs whose initial nursing education was at the diploma or graduate (Master’s or Doctorate) level
  6. bExperience was calculated by subtracting the year of first RN license from 2008. Additionally, one year was subtracted for RNs who left nursing for one or more years since becoming an RN (unweighted 11.7 % of sample), and 0.5 year was subtracted for RNs who are recent graduates and could not have left nursing for one or more years (unweighted 0.9 % of sample)
  7. cBachelor is the reference for the sample of Initial Bachelor degree only