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Table 4 Characteristics of Study Participants by Provider Type

From: Associations between the patient-centered medical home and preventive care and healthcare quality for non-elderly adults with mental illness: A surveillance study analysis

Characteristic Provider Type N (weighted % or mean) P-Value
Duration No USC (At least 1 year: N = 733; Both years: N = 1873) Non-PCMH USC (At least 1 year: N = 4709; Both years: N = 4713) PCMH (At least 1 year: N = 1466; Both years: N = 322) No USC vs. Non-PCMH USC No USC vs. PCMH Non-PCMH USC vs. PCMH
Age
 18-34 years At least 1 year 400 (54.7 %) 1267 (27.3 %) 397 (27.3 %) 0.000 0.000 0.356
 35-49 years 225 (29.3 %) 1661 (34.2 %) 544 (36.5 %)
 50-64 years 108 (16.0 %) 1781 (38.6 %) 525 (36.2 %)
 18-34 years Both years 895 (46.8 %) 1087 (24.1 %) 82 (26.0 %) 0.000 0.000 0.412
 35-49 years 616 (32.0 %) 1693 (34.8 %) 121 (37.1 %)
 50-64 years 362 (21.2 %) 1933 (41.1 %) 119 (36.8 %)
Gender
 Male At least 1 year 327 (48.1 %) 1405 (32.4 %) 405 (29.1 %) 0.000 0.000 0.032
 Female 406 (51.9 %) 3304 (67.6 %) 1061 (70.9 %)
 Male Both years 710 (41.4 %) 1346 (30.8 %) 81 (25.5 %) 0.000 0.000 0.054
 Female 1,163 (58.6 %) 3367 (69.2 %) 241 (74.5 %)
Race/ethnicity
 White non-Hispanic At least 1 Year 367 (69.3 %) 2947 (78.4 %) 913 (78.5 %) 0.000 0.000 0.311
 Black non-Hispanic 115 (8.9 %) 686 (7.6 %) 226 (8.5 %)
 Hispanic 211 (17.0 %) 803 (9.3 %) 258 (9.3 %)
 Other/multiple races 40 (4.8 %) 273 (4.8 %) 69 (3.7 %)
 White non-Hispanic Both years 991 (71.6 %) 3028 (79.5 %) 208 (80.5 %) 0.000 0.017 0.584
 Black non-Hispanic 296 (8.6 %) 690 (7.8 %) 41 (6.4 %)
 Hispanic 468 (14.5 %) 741 (8.4 %) 63 (9.7 %)
 Other/multiple races 118 (5.3 %) 254 (4.3 %) 10 (3.4 %)
Marital status
 Married At least 1 year 250 (31.6 %) 2100 (46.5 %) 793 (57.3 %) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 Widowed 8 (1.6 %) 185 (3.5 %) 34 (2.1 %)
 Divorced/separated 144 (20.5 %) 1235 (25.0 %) 304 (19.4 %)
 Never married 331 (46.3 %) 1189 (25.0 %) 335 (21.2 %)
 Married Both years 686 (35.9 %) 2266 (50.5 %) 191 (61.8 %) 0.000 0.000 0.012
 Widowed 42 (2.2 %) 177 (3.4 %) 8 (1.9 %)
 Divorced/separated 419 (22.9 %) 1208 (24.0 %) 56 (17.2 %)
 Never married 726 (39.0 %) 1062 (22.2 %) 67 (19.0 %)
Education
 Less than high school diploma/unknown At least 1 year 204 (19.9 %) 935 (13.6 %) 226 (10.1 %) 0.000 0.000 0.027
 High school diploma 236 (29.6 %) 1439 (28.9 %) 441 (28.9 %)
 Some college 172 (28.6 %) 1224 (28.5 %) 415 (31.0 %)
 4 years or more of college 121 (21.9 %) 1111 (29.0 %) 384 (30.0 %)
 Less than high school diploma/unknown Both years 476 (18.3 %) 845 (12.1 %) 44 (7.6 %) 0.000 0.000 0.134
 High school diploma 581 (28.6 %) 1445 (29.2 %) 90 (27.6 %)
 Some college 470 (29.5 %) 1247 (28.6 %) 94 (32.1 %)
 4 years or more of college 346 (23.6 %) 1176 (30.0 %) 94 (32.7 %)
Family income - year 1
 Poor/near poor (less than 125 % of the federal poverty level (FPL)) At least 1 year 305 (34.6 %) 1413 (22.6 %) 320 (15.9 %) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 Low income (125-200 % FPL) 155 (19.4 %) 701 (13.6 %) 219 (12.3 %)
 Middle income (200-400 % FPL) 179 (27.9 %) 1335 (29.6 %) 435 (30.9 %)
 High income (more than 400 % FPL) 94 (18.1 %) 1260 (34.2 %) 492 (40.9 %)
 Poor/near poor (less than 125 % FPL) Both years 707 (29.6 %) 1277 (20.4 %) 54 (12.4 %) 0.000 0.000 0.029
 Low income (125-200 % FPL) 357 (17.6 %) 669 (12.6 %) 49 (13.3 %)
 Middle income (200-400 % FPL) 489 (29.2 %) 1359 (29.8 %) 101 (30.9 %)
 High income (more than 400 % FPL) 320 (23.6 %) 1408 (37.3 %) 118 (43.4 %)
Family income - year 2
 Poor/near poor (less than 125 % FPL) At least 1 year 299 (34.1 %) 1433 (22.9 %) 332 (16.8 %) 0.000 0.000 0.001
 Low income (125-200 % FPL) 114 (14.4 %) 679 (12.7 %) 216 (12.2 %)
 Middle income (200-400 % FPL) 214 (31.2 %) 1280 (27.8 %) 407 (28.6 %)
 High income (more than 400 % FPL) 106 (20.3 %) 1317 (36.6 %) 511 (42.4 %)
 Poor/near poor (less than 125 % FPL) Both years 708 (30.3 %) 1290 (20.4 %) 66 (15.1 %) 0.000 0.000 0.149
 Low income (125-200 % FPL) 322 (15.6 %) 651 (12.0 %) 36 (9.1 %)
 Middle income (200-400 % FPL) 517 (28.9 %) 1287 (27.9 %) 97 (31.9 %)
 High income (more than 400 % FPL) 326 (25.2 %) 1485 (39.8 %) 123 (44.0 %)
Employment
 Never employed At least 1 year 154 (17.4 %) 1679 (30.5 %) 404 (23.0 %) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 Sometimes employed 269 (37.5 %) 1001 (20.1 %) 320 (22.3 %)
 Always employed 310 (45.1 %) 2029 (49.3 %) 742 (54.7 %)
 Never employed Both years 468 (21.4 %) 1691 (30.3 %) 78 (21.9 %) 0.000 0.000 0.005
 Sometimes employed 630 (32.5 %) 898 (18.9 %) 62 (17.4 %)
 Always employed 775 (46.2 %) 2124 (50.8 %) 182 (60.6 %)
Health insurance status – year 1
 Any private insurance At least 1 year 267 (45.9 %) 2672 (65.8 %) 967 (73.2 %) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 Medicare 24 (3.0 %) 578 (10.9 %) 137 (8.2 %)
 Medicaid/other public coverage 110 (10.8 %) 830 (12.4 %) 217 (10.3 %)
 Uninsured 332 (40.4 %) 629 (10.9 %) 145 (8.4 %)
 Any private insurance Both years 838 (54.6 %) 2836 (68.4 %) 232 (78.5 %) 0.000 0.000 0.004
 Medicare 99 (5.1 %) 620 (11.5 %) 20 (5.6 %)
 Medicaid/other public coverage 318 (12.3 %) 790 (11.7 %) 49 (10.1 %)
 Uninsured 618 (28.0 %) 467 (8.4 %) 21 (5.8 %)
Health insurance status – year 2
 Any private insurance At least 1 year 259 (44.1 %) 2550 (63.2 %) 936 (71.0 %) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 Medicare 30 (4.2 %) 672 (12.9 %) 154 (9.2 %)
 Medicaid/other public coverage 121 (12.1 %) 873 (13.1 %) 229 (11.4 %)
 Uninsured 323 (39.6 %) 614 (10.8 %) 147 (8.4 %)
 Any private insurance Both years 790 (51.8 %) 2725 (66.0 %) 230 (78.6 %) 0.000 0.000 0.000
 Medicare 115 (6.0 %) 717 (13.5 %) 24 (6.4 %)
 Medicaid/other public coverage 362 (14.3 %) 815 (12.3 %) 46 (8.9 %)
 Uninsured 606 (27.9 %) 456 (8.1 %) 22 (6.2 %)
Mental health condition
 Anxiety disorders At least 1 year 392 (54.0 %) 2595 (55.7 %) 806 (55.8 %) 0.447 0.484 0.936
 Mood disorders 395 (53.9 %) 2955 (62.0 %) 872 (59.0 %) 0.001 0.066 0.094
 Other mental health conditions 60 (8.7 %) 410 (8.3 %) 114 (8.2 %) 0.724 0.724 0.932
 Anxiety disorders Both years 1021 (53.9 %) 2594 (56.2 %) 178 (55.0 %) 0.135 0.775 0.744
 Mood disorders 1081 (57.3 %) 2947 (61.7 %) 194 (60.2 %) 0.009 0.458 0.694
 Other mental health conditions 166 (9.5 %) 401 (8.0 %) 17 (6.7 %) 0.098 0.198 0.498
Substance use disorder diagnosis
 Yes At least 1 year 14 (1.9 %) 94 (2.3 %) 28 (1.8 %) 0.534 0.894 0.292
 No 719 (98.1 %) 4,615 (97.7 %) 1,438 (98.2 %)
 Yes Both years 42 (2.1 %) 88 (2.2 %) 6 (1.9 %) 0.722 0.879 0.734
 No 1,831 (97.9 %) 4,625 (97.8 %) 316 (98.1 %)