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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population

From: Convergent validity of the interRAI-HC for societal costs estimates in comparison with the RUD Lite instrument in community dwelling older adults

  Total (n = 656) Finland (n = 346) Germany (n = 60) Iceland (n = 103) Netherlands (n = 147) Test statistics p-value
Mean age (SD) 83.2 (7.2) 83 (7.2) 84.1 (8.0) 84.7 (6.2) 82.2 (7.2) F = 2.97 0.03
Female (n, %) 439 (67 %) 231 (67 %) 38 (63 %) 71 (69 %) 99 (67 %) χ 2 = 0.55 0.91
Living alone (n, %) 472 (72 %) 277 (80 %) 36 (60 %) 65 (63 %) 94 (64 %) χ 2 = 24.17 <0.01
Cognitive impairment (CPS ≥ 3) (n, %) 61 (9 %) 40 (12 %) 13 (22 %) 6 (6 %) 2 (1 %) χ 2 = 25.44 <0.01
Depressive symptoms (DRS ≥ 3) (n, %) 82 (13 %) 25 (7 %) 7 (12 %) 12 (12 %) 38 (26 %) χ 2 = 32.86 <0.01
Mean ADLH score (SD) 0.8 (1.4) 0.7 (1.3) 2.4 (1.9) 0.5 (0.9) 0.7 (1.4) F = 31.55 <0.01
Mean iADLH score (SD) 25.4 (12.8) 27.3 (12.6) 27.8 (16.3) 23.5 (11.1) 21.3 (11.8) F = 8.52 <0.01
Pain (Pain Scale > 0) (n, %) 392 (60 %) 226 (66 %) 19 (32 %) 69 (67 %) 78 (53 %) χ 2 = 29.75 <0.01
Multimorbidity (n, %) 376 (57 %) 208 (60 %) 23 (38 %) 63 (61 %) 82 (56 %) χ 2 = 10.71 0.01
Having an informal caregiver (n, %)       χ 2 = 137.15 <0.01
No caregiver present 81 (12 %) 58 (17 %) 6 (10 %) 0 (0 %) 17 (12 %)   
One caregiver 235 (36 %) 157 (45 %) 37 (62 %) 3 (3 %) 38 (26 %)   
Two or more caregivers 340 (52 %) 131 (38 %) 17 (28 %) 100 (97 %) 92 (63 %)