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Table 1 Characteristics of CKD patients by the main three health schemes

From: Mortality and treatment costs of hospitalized chronic kidney disease patients between the three major health insurance schemes in Thailand

Characteristics The main three Thai health schemes
Universal Coverage Scheme Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme Social Health Insurance
Number of adult patients (persons) 98,727 24,767 4844
Number of admissions (times) 185,161 42,348 8930
Age (mean ± SD) 66.55 ± 13.36 72.23 ± 11.46 46.99 ± 12.16
Sex (male/female) 1/1.15 1/0.88 1/0.58
Region (%)
 N/NE/C/S 21.4/46.2/24.2/8.2 17.4/32.6/39.5/10.5 11.6/11.2/71.2/6.1
Hospital levels (%)
 Community hospital 49.95 27.24 1.84
 General hospital 23.58 24.49 16.72
 Tertiary hospital 22.92 48.14 35.61
 Private hospital 3.55 0.13 45.83
Onetime admission/Multiple admission (%) 62.6/37.4 64.8/35.2 60.0/40.0
CKD diagnosed as primary/secondary (%) 24.4/75.6 19.9/80.1 35.1/64.9
Proportion of ESRD ((%) 24.19 31.63 52.06
Common co-morbidities (%)    
 Hypertension 56.91 67.90 63.79
 Diabetes mellitus 45.08 49.09 36.50
 Hyperlipidemia 17.19 25.05 20.05
 Ischemic heart disease 13.49 21.68 11.91
 Heart failure 14.28 13.95 12.70
 Gout 10.49 13.17 6.44
 Sepsis 12.78 14.71 10.90
 Pneumonia 9.94 12.25 8.20
 Acute kidney injury 8.59 10.26 7.23
 Diarrhea 8.63 8.34 7.51
 Stroke 6.51 11.41 5.66
 Respiratory failure 8.53 7.85 4.81
Complications (%)    
 Anemia requiring blood transfusion 31.86 23.24 31.32
 Hyperkalemia 15.95 11.56 11.50
 Volume overload 12.44 8.96 14.80
 Metabolic acidosis 9.20 5.04 4.81
Dialysis treatment (% of admissions)    
 Hemodialysis 6.97 16.64 24.15
 Peritoneal dialysis 2.98 1.86 2.15
Overall mortality rate (%) 10.39 12.44 8.71
Mortality rate in different hospital levels (%)    
 Community/General/Tertiary/Private 3.7/14.9/17.5/13.2 5.9/14.5/15.1/15.2 7.9/8.04/10.4/7.6
  1. Note: CKD chronic kidney disease, ESRD end stage renal disease, N northern region, NE northeastern region, C central region, S southern region, SD standard deviation