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Table 5 Prognostic factors influencing mortality rates among hospitalized, Thai, adult, CKD patients

From: Mortality and treatment costs of hospitalized chronic kidney disease patients between the three major health insurance schemes in Thailand

Variables No. of patients (persons) Dead persons and mortality rate (%) Crude odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Sex
 Female 66,134 6814 (10.3) 1   1  
 Male 62,204 6941 (11.2) 1.09 (1.06–1.13) <0.001 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 0.17
Age
 19–30 1869 189 (10.1) 1   1  
 31–40 4135 400 (9.7) 0.95 (0.79–1.14) 0.60 1.16 (0.95–1.42) 0.15
 41–50 10,556 1127 (10.7) 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 0.47 1.28 (1.07–1.54) 0.008
 51–60 23,073 2318 (10.0) 0.99 (0.85–1.16) 0.93 1.21 (1.01–1.44) 0.039
 61–70 32,837 3277 (10.0) 0.99 (0.84–1.15) 0.85 1.25 (1.05–1.50) 0.013
 71–80 37,727 4039 (10.7) 1.07 (0.91–1.24) 0.42 1.40 (1.18–1.68) <0.001
  > 80 18,141 2405 (13.3) 1.36 (1.16–1.59) <0.001 1.82 (1.52–2.19) <0.001
Insurance
 CSMBS 24,767 3080 (12.4) 1   1  
 UCS 98,727 10,253 (10.4) 0.82 (0.78–0.85) <0.001 1.13 (1.07–1.20) <0.001
 SHI 4844 422 (8.7) 0.67 (0.60–0.75) <0.001 0.87 (0.76–0.99) 0.038
Hospital level
 Community 56,151 3384 (6.0) 1   1  
 General 30,156 4091 (13.6) 2.45 (2.33–2.57) <0.001 1.58 (1.50–1.68) <0.001
 Tertiary 36,274 5634 (15.5) 2.87 (2.74–3.00) <0.001 1.62 (1.53–1.71) <0.001
 Private 5757 646 (11.2) 1.97 (1.80–2.15) <0.001 1.51 (1.35–1.68) <0.001
Hospital charges (Baht/USD)
 First quartile (<5550/< 163) 32,090 701 (2.2) 1   1  
 Second quartile (5550–13,271/163–390) 32,079 2028 (6.3) 3.02 (2.77–3.30) <0.001 2.08 (1.90–2.28) <0.001
 Third quartile (13,272–34,502/390–1015) 32,085 3680 (11.5) 5.80 (5.34–6.30) <0.001 2.98 (2.72–3.26) <0.001
 Fourth quartile (>34,502/> 1015) 32,084 7346 (22.9) 13.30 (12.28–14.39) <0.001 4.43 (4.03–4.88) <0.001
Onetime admission/Multiple admission 80,764/47,574 7514 (9.3)/6241 (13.1) 1.47 (1.42–1.53) <0.001 0.64 (0.61–0.68) <0.001
CKD diagnosed as primary/secondary 30,731/97,607 2991 (9.7)/10,764 (11.0) 1.15 (1.10–1.20) <0.001 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 0.11
ESRD (yes/no) 34,234/94,104 5405 (15.8)/8350 (8.9) 1.93 (1.86–2.00) <0.001 1.49 (1.42–1.57) <0.001
Co-morbidities
 Diabetes mellitus (yes/no) 58,427/69,911 6795 (11.6)/6960 (10.0) 1.19 (1.15–1.23) <0.001 1.12 (1.08–1.17) <0.001
 Ischemic heart disease (yes/no) 19,264/109,074 3178 (16.5)/10,577 (9.7) 1.84 (1.76–1.92) <0.001 1.43 (1.35–1.51) <0.001
 Heart failure (yes/no) 18,174/110,164 3277 (18.0)/10,478 (9.5) 2.09 (2.01–2.18) <0.001 1.38 (1.31–1.46) <0.001
 Sepsis (yes/no) 16,792/111,546 6146 (36.6)/7609 (6.8) 7.89 (7.58–8.20) <0.001 4.28 (4.09–4.48) <0.001
 Pneumonia (yes/no) 13,247/115,091 3860 (29.1)/9895 (8.6) 4.37 (4.19–4.56) <0.001 1.59 (1.51–1.68) <0.001
 Acute renal failure (yes/no) 11,367/116,971 2972 (26.1)/10,783 (9.2) 3.49 (3.33–3.65) <0.001 1.44 (1.36–1.52) <0.001
 Stroke (yes/no) 9527/118,811 2071 (21.7)/11,684 (9.8) 2.55 (2.42–2.68) <0.001 1.85 (1.73–1.96) <0.001
 Respiratory failure (yes/no) 10,596/117,742 4707 (44.4)/9048 (7.7) 9.60 (9.19–10.03) <0.001 3.64 (3.45–3.83) <0.001
Complications
 Anemia requiring blood  Transfusion (yes/no) 38,730/89,608 5916 (15.3)/7839 (8.7) 1.88 (1.81–1.95) <0.001 1.03 (0.98–1.07) 0.28
 Hyperkalemia (yes/no) 19,165/109,173 3728 (19.5)/10,027 (9.2) 2.39 (2.29–2.49) <0.001 1.48 (1.40–1.55) <0.001
 Volume overload (yes/no) 15,213/113,125 2,831 (18.6)/10,924 (9.7) 2.14 (2.04–2.24) <0.001 1.23 (1.16–1.31) <0.001
 Metabolic acidosis (yes/no) 10,561/117,777 2,799 (26.5)/10,956 (9.3) 3.52 (3.35–3.69) <0.001 1.72 (1.62–1.82) <0.001
Mode of dialysis
 Hemodialysis (yes/no) 12,175/116,163 2,516 (20.7)/11,239 (9.7) 2.43 (2.32–2.55) <0.001 0.90 (0.85–0.96) 0.002
 Peritoneal dialysis (yes/no) 3,509/124,829 717 (20.4)/13,038 (10.4) 2.20 (2.02–2.39) <0.001 0.87 (0.78–0.96) 0.006
  1. Note: CKD chronic kidney disease, ESRD end stage renal disease, UCS Universal Coverage Scheme, CSMBS Civil Servant Medical Benefit Scheme, SHI Social Health Insurance, CI confidence interval