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Table 2 Correlates of poor treatment by health care provider among Indian Americans in the United States (n = 1,824)

From: Perceived discrimination and health outcomes among Asian Indians in the United States

  No. received poor treatment/No. in category (na = 132/1,824) Bivariateb OR (95 % CI) Adjustedc OR (95 % CI)
Self-rated health
 Excellent/very good/good 99/1,574 6.3 % Reference Reference
 Fair/Poor 33/250 13.3 % 2.29*** (1.48–3.54) 1.88* (1.12–3.14)
Sex
 Male 73/1,103 6.6 % Reference Reference
 Female 59/721 8.2 % 1.26 (0.86–1.86) 1.36 (0.89–2.08)
Age
 18–34 31/421 7.4 % Reference Reference
 35–44 31/460 6.7 % 0.90 (0.52–1.59) 0.51**** (0.26–1.00)
 45–54 26/417 6.1 % 0.82 (0.45–1.49) 0.32** (0.15–0.69)
  ≥ 55 45/526 8.5 % 1.16 (0.66–2.03) 0.39* (0.17–0.91)
Annual household income
  < $25,000 13/229 5.6 % Reference Reference
 $25,000–$74,999 51/550 9.3 % 1.76 (0.82–3.79) 1.33 (0.59–2.97)
 $75,000–$99,999 27/389 6.8 % 1.25 (0.54–2.87) 0.90 (0.36–2.23)
  ≥ $100,000**** 41/656 6.3 % 1.15 (0.54–2.46) 0.73 (0.31–1.69)
Education
  ≤ High school graduate 6/172 3.5 % Reference Reference
 College graduate 82/975 8.4 % 2.63 (0.81–8.50) 2.44 (0.79–7.52)
  > College 44/676 6.6 % 2.02 (0.64–6.41) 1.94 (0.62–6.02)
Marital status
 Married 118/1,632 7.3 % Reference Reference
 Formerly Married 6/83 6.9 % 0.89 (0.27–2.97) 0.66 (0.18–2.42)
 Never Married 8/109 7.2 % 1.00 (0.46–2.14) 0.91 (0.38–2.14)
Have health insurance
 No 17/261 6.3 % Reference Reference
 Yes 116/1,563 7.4 % 1.19 (0.64–2.21) 0.88 (0.43–1.79)
Body mass indexd
 Underweight/normal 70/1,015 6.9 % Reference Reference
 Overweight 47/666 7.1 % 1.03 (0.67–1.57) 0.93 (0.59–1.48)
 Obese 15/143 10.3 % 1.52 (0.73–3.17) 0.94 (0.43–2.07)
Current tobacco user
 No 124/1,709 7.2 % Reference Reference
 Yes 8/115 7.3 % 1.01 (0.48–2.14) 0.97 (0.43–2.20)
Years lived in U.S.
  < 10 years 26/628 4.1 % Reference Reference
  ≥ 10 years 106/1196 8.9 % 2.30** (1.42–3.74) 3.28*** (1.73–6.22)
English proficiency
 Very/Pretty well 124/1,635 7.6 % Reference Reference
 Not too well/Not at all 8/189 4.1 % 2.07 (0.52–7.26) 1.61 (0.39–6.57)
Chronic illness Mean SD     
  1.6 1.5 1.38*** (1.20–1.57) 1.39*** (1.17–1.64)
  1. Abbreviations: No. denotes number, OR denotes odds ratios, CI denotes confidence interval, SD denotes standard deviation
  2. Notes: aN was calculated based on the estimated proportion. bBivariate ORs reflect the association between Fair/Poor vs. good/very good/excellent and each of the covariates separately. cAdjusted ORs reflect the association between Fair/Poor vs. good/very good/excellent, adjusting for all of the other variables. dUnderweight/normal (<24.9 kg/m2); Overweight (25.00–29.9 kg//m2) Obese (≥30 kg/m2). P-values: **** p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001