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Table 3 Correlates of poora self-rated health among Indian Americans in the United States (n = 1,824)

From: Perceived discrimination and health outcomes among Asian Indians in the United States

  No. poor self-rated healtha/No. in category (nb = 128/892) Bivariatec OR (95 % CI) Adjustedd OR (95 % CI)
Perceived discriminationa
 No 109/714 12.8 % Reference Reference
 Yes 19/50 25.1 % 2.29*** (1.48–3.54) 1.93* (1.17–3.19)
Sex
 Male 81/500 13.2 % Reference Reference
 Female 47/264 14.5 % 1.12 (0.84–1.49) 1.02 (0.73–1.42)
Age
 18–34 21/176 11.8 % Reference Reference
 35–44 35/215 11.9 % 1.01 (0.65–1.57) 0.71 (0.43–1.18)
 45–54 34/163 17.2 % 1.56+ (1.00–2.43) 0.84 (0.47–1.49)
  ≥ 55 38/210 14.0 % 1.22 (0.80–1.87) 0.48* (0.26–0.89)
Annual household income
  < $25,000 21/60 20.9 % Reference Reference
 $25,000–$74,999 28/224 11.9 % 0.51* (0.31–0.85) 0.56* (0.32–1.00)
 $75,000–$99,999 27/178 12.7 % 0.55* (0.33–0.93) 0.74 (0.37–1.47)
  ≥ $100,000+ 52/302 13.2 % 0.58* (0.37–0.90) 0.74 (0.38–1.43)
Education
  ≤ High school graduate 16/41 18.9 % Reference Reference
 College graduate 72/402 13.8 % 0.69 (0.43–1.09) 0.93 (0.52–1.67)
  > College 40/321 12.2 % 0.60* (0.37–0.95) 0.84 (0.45–1.57)
Marital status
 Married 27/76 14.1 % Reference Reference
 Formerly Married 101/688 12.3 % 0.84 (0.36–1.93) 0.65 (0.26–1.59)
 Never Married   8.0 % 0.52 (0.25–1.13) 0.59 (0.25–1.38)
Have health insurance 121/691      
 No 3/28 20.8 % Reference Reference
 Yes 4/45 12.5 % 0.54** (0.37–0.80) 0.56* (0.35–0.92)
Body mass indexe
 Underweight/normal 56/446 11.0 % Reference Reference
 Overweight 54/275 14.6 % 1.39* (1.01–1.90) 1.23 (0.88–1.71)
 Obese 18/43 28.0 % 3.14*** (2.03–4.88) 2.13** (1.32–3.42)
Current tobacco user
 No 114/721 13.1 % Reference Reference
 Yes 14/43 22.7 % 1.95** (1.23–3.10) 1.80* (1.09–2.98)
Years lived in U.S.
  < 10 years 32/253 11.9 % Reference Reference
  ≥ 10 years 96/511 14.6 % 1.27 (0.93–1.72) 1.35 (0.86–2.12)
English proficiency
 Very/Pretty well 213/1,635 13.0 % Reference Reference
 Not too well/Not at all 37/189 19.4 % 0.62* (0.41–0.96) 0.93 (0.48–1.80)
Chronic illness Mean SD     
 Received poor treatment 1.6 1.5 1.44*** (1.30–1.60) 1.46*** (1.28–1.66)
  1. Abbreviations: No. denotes number, OR denotes odds ratios, CI denotes confidence interval, SD denotes standard deviation
  2. Notes: aIncludes poor/fair responses. bN was calculated based on the estimated proportion. cBivariate ORs reflect the association between Fair/Poor vs. good/very good/excellent and each of the covariates separately. dAdjusted ORs reflect the association between Fair/Poor vs. good/very good/excellent, adjusting for all of the other variables. eUnderweight/normal (<24.9 kg/m2); Overweight (25.00–29.9 kg//m2) Obese (≥30 kg/m2). P-values: +p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001