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Table 1 Characteristics, scoring and prevalence of dementia/AD in studies carried out in Italy

From: A systematic review of the quality of studies on dementia prevalence in Italy

First author and year of publication Year of survey Area of investigation Type of dementia(s) Age (years) Sample size Score Design Score Response Proportion Score Diagnostic assessment Score Total score Prevalence of dementia Diagnostic criteria tools
Rocca, 1990 [9] 1987 Appignano (Macerata) D (AD + MID + MD) >59 778 Score: 1 Two-phase design with negative screen Score: 1 96 % Score: 3 AMT + MMSE + Blessed-Roth + CE + IN Score: 3 8 6.2 % (2.6 % AD) NINCDS-ADRDA HIS
ILSA, 1997 [10] 1992–1993 8 municipalities Any type 65–84 5632/5462 (total/eligible) Score: 2 Two-phase design with negative screen Score: 1 84-64 %a Score: 3 IN + CE (MMSE/ADL/IADL) Score: 3 9 7.2 % F DSM-III-R
5.3 % M NINCDS-ADRDA
ICD-10
Prencipe, 1996 [11] 1992–1993 Aquila Province D (AD + VaD + ODD) >64 1147 Score: 1 Two-phase design with negative screen Score: 1 84.4 % Score: 3 MMSE/MSQ + CE + IN + disability assessment Score: 4 9 8.0 % (5.2 % AD) NINCDS-ADRDA
NINDS-AIREN
HIS
De Ronchi, 1998 [12] 1991 Granarolo (Ravenna) AD + VaD + MD ≥61 557 (481 completers) Score: 1 Two-phase design with no negative Score: 0 86.4 % Score: 3 MMSE/GDS + CE + IN + ADL Score: 2 6 11.1 % DSM III R
Benedetti, 2002 [13] 1996 Buttapietra (Verona) AD + VaD >74 238 Score: 0.5 One-phase design Score: 2 93.3 % Score: 3 MMSE + CE + IN + ADL Score: 3 8.5 15.8 % (6.7 % AD) HIS
NINCDS-ADRDA
DSM-III-R
Ferini-Strambi, 1997 [14] 1991 Vescovato (Cremona) AD + VaD + MD + SeD >59 856 (673 responders) Score: 1 Two-phase design with no negative Score: 0 79 % Score: 2 AMT + CE Score: 2 5 9.8 % (5.2 % AD) NINCDS-ADRDA
NINDS-AIREN
D’Alessandro, 1996 [15] 1992 Troina (Enna) D (VaD) >74 365 Score: 0.5 Two-phase design with negative screen Score: 1 95 % Score: 3 MMSE + CE + CDR Score: 3 7.5 21.9 % DSM-III-R
HIS
Azzimondi, 1998 [16] 1992–1994 2 Sicilian Communities (data on S. Agata Militello) D (VaD) >74 408 Score: 1 Two-phase design with negative screen Score: 1 93 % Score: 3 MMSE + CE + CDR Score: 3 8 28.4 % DSM-III-RHIS
Cristina, 2001 [17] 1992–1993 Pavia Province D >65 (40 % 65–69 and all >70) 2442 Score: 1.5 Two-phase design with negative sample Score: 1 68 % Score: 2 MMSE + IN + CE Score: 3 7.5 11.8 % DSM-III-R
Tognoni, 2005 [18] 2000 Pisa Province (Vecchiano) VaD + AD+ LBD + MCI >65 2366 Score: 1.5 Two-phase design with indirect sample of negative screen 68 % Score: 2 MMSE/CDR/CAMDEX + C E+ IN + ADL Score: 3 7.5 6.2 % (4.2 % AD) NINCDS-ADRDA
HIS
LBD
MCADRC DSM-IV
Lucca, 2011 [19] 2002–2010 Monzino (Varese) D (AD) ≥80 (80–100) 2316 Score: 1.5 One-phase design Score: 2 88 % Registered Score: 3 MMSE/BIMC/CDR + CE + IN + disability assessment Score: 4 10.5 32 % DSM-IV
Ravaglia, 1999 [20] 1994–1995 Bologna + Ravenna provinces AD + VaD ≥100 154 Score: 0.5 One-phase design Score: 2 65 % Score: 2 MMSE + CE + IN + disability assessment Score: 3 7.5 61.9 % (48.9 % AD) DSM-IV
NINCDS-ADRDA
ICD 10
Spada, 2009 [21] 2005–2006 San Teodoro (Enna) AD + VaD + Others 60–85 374 Score: 0.5 Two-phase design with no negative screen sample Score: 0 74.9 % Score: 2 MMSE + CE + IN + disability assessment Score: 3 5.5 7.1 % (4.1 % AD) DSM IV
NINCDS-ADRDA
NINDS-AIREN
Ravaglia, 2002 [22] 1999–2000 Conselice (Ravenna) AD + VaD 65–97 1353 Score: 1 Two-phase design with negative screen sample Score: 1 75 % Score: 2 MMSE + CE + IN + disability assessment Score: 3 7 5.9 % (3.0 % AD) DSM-IV
NINCDS-ADRDA
NINDS-AIREN
Ferrucci, 2000 [24] 1998 Greve in Chianti + Bagno a Ripoli (Florence) D and AD >65–90+ 1260 Score: 1 Two-phase design with negative screen Score: 1 91.6 %b Score: 3 MMSE + CE + IN + disability assessment Score: 3 8 7.1 % (3.6 % AD)d DSM-III-R
NINCDS-ADRDA
Di Bari, 1999 [25] 1995 Dicomano (Florence) D and AD >65–90+ 864 Score: 1 Two-phase design with negative screen Score: 0 91.2 %b Score: 3 MMSE c + MODA + CE + BADL Score: 3 7 9.0 % z (5.2 % AD)d Unknown
  1. General: F females, M males, NA not available
  2. Type of dementia and other diseases: AD Alzheimer Disease, D Dementia, LBD Lewy Body Dementia, MCI Mild Cognitive Impairment, MD Mixed Dementia, MID Multi-Infarct Dementia, ODD Other Dementing Diseases, SeD Secondary Dementia, VaD Vascular Dementia
  3. Area of investigation: SAM community of Sant’Agata Militello
  4. Diagnostic assessment score: ADL Activities of Daily Living, AMT Abbreviated Mental Test, BADL Bristol Activities of Daily Living, BIMC Blessed Information Memory Concentration, CAMDEX Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, CE Clinical Examination, GDS Global Deterioration Scale, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, IN Interview, MDS Minimum Data Set, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MODA Milan Overall Dementia Assessment, MSQ Mental Status Questionnaire
  5. Diagnostic criteria tools: DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, HIS Hachinski Ischemic Score, ICD International Classification of Diseases, MCARDC Mayo Clinic Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, NINCDS-ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association, NINDS-AIREN National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignment en Neurosciences, RPM Raven Progressive Matrix
  6. aResponse rates for personal interview and clinical evaluation, respectively
  7. bCalculated on those who were traceable
  8. cMMSE and adjustment tests when score falls between 22 and 25
  9. dEstimated from Table 2 in the pooled analysis [23]