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Table 4 Distribution of preconception risk factors among women and men in different preconception risk categories

From: China’s community-based strategy of universal preconception care in rural areas at a population level using a novel risk classification system for stratifying couples´ preconception health status

Risk factors Total number (%) Risk factors Total number (%)
Maternal Paternal
A
Alcohol consumption 72,808(3.40%) Alcohol consumption 634,547(29.61%)
No intake meat and egg 29,126(1.36%) Smoking 622,834(29.07%)
Noise exposure 25,267(1.18%) Preputial ring 84,659(3.95%)
Othersa 82,739(3.86%) Noise exposure 48,399(2.26%)
   Pesticide exposure 26,753(1.25%)
   No intake meat and egg 25,857(1.21%)
   Organic solvent exposure 24,211(1.13%)
   High temperature exposure 23,388(1.09%)
   Othersi 41,492(1.94%)
B
Anemiab 179,941(8.40%) Abnormal liver function 152,862(7.13%)
Gingival hemorrhage 76,595(3.57%) Abnormal renal function 26,107(1.22%)
Vaginitisc 49,162(2.29%) Othersj 9,973(0.47%)
Othersd 12,257(0.57%)   
C
Abnormal TSH 135,958(6.34%) HBs antigen positive 135,958(5.87%)
HBs-Ag positive 101,970(4.76%) HBe antigen positive 101,970(1.68%)
Gynecological diseases history 73,107(3.41%) Othersk 10,111(0.47%)
Abnormal renal function 57,680(2.69%)   
Abnormal liver function 54,192(2.53%)   
Thrombocytopeniab 31,522(1.47%)   
HBe-Ag positive 31,459(1.47%)   
Otherse 132,582(6.19%)   
D
Spontaneous abortion history 57,060(2.66%) Othersl 4,305(0.20%)
Adverse pregnancy historyf 23,878(1.12%)   
Othersg 8,873(0.41%)   
X
Othersh 5,259(0.25%)   
  1. aincluding 20,647 not eating fresh vegetables (0.96%), 16,435 pesticide exposure (0.77%), 16,049 organic solvent exposure (0.75%), 12,540 radiation exposure (0.59%), 9,717 smoking (0.45%), 5,582 raw meat eating habit (0.26%) and 1,765 heavy metal exposure (0.08%)
  2. bAnemia referred to hemoglobin ranging from 60–109g/L
  3. cVaginitis included 27,657 Candida infection, 11,398 Bacterial vaginitis and 10,107 Trichomonasis
  4. dincluding 10,107 Trichomoniasis (0.47%), 7,672 Toxoplasma gondiiIgM positive (0.36%), 4,545Gonococcal infection (0.21%) and 40 history of psychological disease (0.00%)
  5. eincluding 20,705 Rh negative (0.97%), 9,290 Cytomegalovirus IgM positive (0.43%), 9,266 Chlamydia positive (0.43%), 8,482 Syphilis screening positive (0.40%), 4,395 history of preterm birth (0.21%), 14,383 diabetes (0.67%), 1,830 reported hypertension (0.09%), 1,655 reported history of tuberculosis (0.08%), 1,392 anesthetic drug use (0.07%), 1,327 congenital heart disease (0.06%), 1,018 reported tumor history (0.05%), 897 reported chronic renal disease history (0.04%) and 882 reported epilepsy history (0.04%)
  6. fAdverse pregnancy history included 16,824 with history of stillbirth and 7,054 with history of birth defects
  7. gincluding 4,515 with birth defects (0.21%), 1,527 family history of neonatal death (0.07%), 1,416 mental retardation (0.07%), 923 family history of Mediterranean anemia (0.04%), 254 family history of G6PD deficiency (0.01%), 138 family history of Albinism (0.01%), 92 family history of Down’s syndrome (0.00%), 5 family history of hearing impairment (0.00%), 2 family history of mental retardation (0.00%) and 1family history of visual impairment (0.00%)
  8. hincluding 2,707 severe thrombocytopenia (0.13%) and 2,552 severe anemia (0.12%). Severe thrombocytopenia referred to platelet less than 50*109/L. Severe anemia referred to hemoglobin less than 60g/L
  9. iincluding 18,726 not eating fresh vegetables (0.87%), 9,734 radiation exposure (0.45%), 9,454 raw meat eating habit (0.44%) and 3,578 exposure to heavy metals (0.17%)
  10. jincluding 5,325 spermatic cord varicocele (0.25%), 2,432 hypertension (0.11%), 1,052 congenital heart disease (0.05%), 598 chronic renal disease history (0.03%), 404 epilepsy (0.02%), 159 history of cancer (0.01%) and 3 history of psychological disease (0.00%)
  11. kincluding 7,771 Syphilis screening positive (0.36%), 1,348 anesthetic drug use (0.06%) and 992 reported thyroid disease (0.05%)
  12. lincluding 2,344 with birth defects (0.11%), 658 family history of neonatal death (0.03%), 603 family history of Mediterranean anemia (0.03%), 274 family history of G6PD deficiency (0.01%), 248 mental retardation (0.01%), 138 family history of Albinism (0.01%), 78 family history of Down’s syndrome (0.00%), 4 family history of hearing impairment (0.00%), 1family history of hemophilia (0.00%) and 1family history of visual impairment (0.00%)