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Table 1 Unadjusted descriptive characteristics of continuously enrolled (2007–2012) individuals using mental health services in network and out-of-network before and after implementation of federal parity

From: Was federal parity associated with changes in Out-of-network mental health care use and spending?

  Full sample Enrollees using only in-network services Enrollees using some or only out-of-network services  
  2007–2012 All years 2007–2012 Pre-parity 2007–2009 Post-parity 2010–2012 p-value (pre vs post) All years 2007–2012 Pre-parity 2007–2009 Post-parity 2010–2012 P-value (pre vs Post) In-network vs OON 2007–2012
N 698,680 584,719 379,526 437,203   113,961 68,481 66,195   
Female (%) 62 62 63 63 0.019 62 63 62 0.004 0.289
Age (%)
 18–34 18 18 17 18 <0.001 18 18 18 0.128 <0.001
 35–44 31 31 31 31 0.771 32 32 31 0.020
 45–54 37 37 37 36 <0.001 36 36 37 0.341
 55–64 14 14 14 14 <0.001 14 14 14 0.916
Region (%)
 Northeast 11 11 11 11 0.020 14 15 15 0.195 <0.001
 Midwest 26 24 24 25 <0.001 36 40 32 <0.001
 South 37 38 38 37 <0.001 33 30 34 <0.001
 West 26 27 27 27 <0.001 17 15 20 <0.001
Lives in a designated MSA (%) 86 86 86 86 0.360 86 86 87 0.556 0.030
Diagnosis (%):
 Psychosis 1.6 1.1 0.9 1.1 <0.001 3.9 2.9 3.9 <0.001 <0.001
 Bipolar Disorder 3.7 2.9 3.4 3.1 <0.001 8.3 7.8 8.1 0.021 <0.001
 Depression or Anxiety 56.0 55.2 51.4 49.7 <0.001 59.9 56.5 56.2 0.222 <0.001
 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.4 <0.001 2.7 2.7 2.9 0.060 <0.001
Other 6.2 6.6 5.9 5.2 <0.001 3.7 3.6 3.8 0.098 <0.001
Adjustment disorder 14.2 14.2 13.4 12.9 <0.001 14.6 17.8 13.8 <0.001 <0.001
Residual 15.4 17.1 22.1 24.6 <0.001 6.9 8.7 11.2 <0.001 <0.001
  1. Notes: Age, region and percent living in designated MSA are measured at baseline (2007). We used diagnosis codes to group patients into mutually exclusive hierarchical diagnosis categories. We required patients have the same ICD-9 code listed in the first diagnosis field on at least 2 claims on two dates to have a diagnosis. The diagnostic hierarchy was as follows: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression or anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, other (including, for example, other affective disorders, other neurotic disorder, eating disorders), adjustment disorder, and a residual category including patients not included in the above