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Table 1 Risk factors for maternal referrals, univariate and adjusted multivariable estimates

From: Description of inter-institutional referrals after admission for labor and delivery: a prospective population based cohort study in rural Maharashtra, India

  Mother referred N = 34,319 (100) Univariate Multivariable
  Yes N (%) No N (%) RR (95%CI) aRR (95%CI)a
  n = 3236 (9.4%) n = 31,083 (90.6)   
Maternal Age (Years)
  < =25 2345 (72.5) 21,367 (68.7) 1.2*** (1.1–1.3) 1.1** (1.0–1.2)
 25+ 891 (27.5) 9716 (31.3) Referent Referent
Maternal Education
 Illiterate or Primary 592 (18.3) 6267 (20.2) Referent Referent
 Secondary or Higher 2638 (81.5) 24,755 (79.6) 1.2*** (1.1–1.3) 1.1 (1.0–1.2)
 Missing 6 (0.2) 61 (0.2)
Maternal BMI
  < 21 1966 (60.9) 19,461 (62.6) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 1.0 (0.9–1.0)
 21–30 1197 (37.0) 10,912 (35.1) Referent Referent
 30+ 73 (2.1) 710 (2.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
Maternal Anemia
 None 300 (9.3) 2876 (9.3) Referent Referent
 Mild 1359 (42.0) 13,074 (42.1) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 1.1 (1.0–1.3)
 Moderate or Severe 1525 (47.1) 14,617 (47.0) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 1.2***(1.0–1.4)
 Missing 52 (1.6) 516 (1.6)
Maternal Gestation
(weeks)
  < 37 weeks 511 (15.8) 4193 (13.5) 1.2*** (1.1–1.3) 1.2***(1.1–1.3)
  > = 37 weeks 2685 (83.0) 26,517 (85.3) Referent Referent
 Missing 40 (1.2) 373 (1.2)
Multiple Gestations
 No 3181 (98.3) 30,874 (99.3) Referent Referent
 Yes 55 (1.7) 209 (0.7) 2.1*** (1.6–2.8) 1.6***(1.2–2.1)
Fetal Heart Rate Present
 No 58 (1.8) 240 (0.8) 2.1*** (1.6–2.8) 1.7***(1.3–2.2)
 Yes 3122 (96.5) 30,619 (98.5) Referent Referent
 Missing 56 (1.7) 224 (0.7)
Interaction term
 Primigravida - No PRCb 1001 (30.9) 12,498 (40.2) 1.4***(1.3–1.6) 1.4***(1.3–1.6)
 Primigravida - PRC 944 (29.2) 2437 (7.8) 5.0***(4.0–6.3) 4.7***(3.8–5.8)
 Multigravida - No PRC 813 (25.1) 14,714 (47.4) Referent Referent
 Multigravida - PRC 478 (14.8) 1428 (4.6) 4.4***(3.6–5.6) 4.2***(3.4–5.2)
  1. **P < 0.05 ***P < 0.001
  2. aMultivariable RR adjusted for 20 PHCs (clusters) using GEE Poisson regression
  3. bOne or more Pregnancy Related Conditions in mothers