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Table 2 Intracranial haemorrhages – average attributable costs per patient, EUR (2015 prices)

From: Costs of major intracranial, gastrointestinal and other bleeding events in patients with atrial fibrillation – a nationwide cohort study

  3-years costs (present value calculated in the incidence year)a Annual attributable cost estimates (not discounted)b
Year 0 (incidence year) Year 1 after the bleeding event Year 2 after the bleeding event
Direct costs
 Healthcare 18,061 16,309 2985 −427
  Inpatient hospital care 18,078 16,341*** 3094*** −557
  Outpatient hospital care −49 132 −192 2
  Private practice health prof. 73 −69*** 68** 86**
  Prescribed medicine −42 −96*** 16 41
 Social care services 7524 1546 3313 3345
  Home help 3929 419** 1844*** 2048***
  Nursing home 3595 1127*** 1469*** 1297***
Indirect costs
 Productivity loss 2042 194 624** 1438***
 Direct and indirect costs 27,627 18,049 6922 4356
  1. a3-years costs (present value) are equal to the sum of the costs in year 0 and the discounted value of the costs in years 1 and 2 after the bleeding event
  2. bT-tests were used to investigate whether the annual attributable cost estimates related to hospital care, visits to GPs and other health professionals in the primary care setting, prescribed medicine, home help, nursing home and productivity loss were significantly different from zero (H0: μ = 0 against the hypothesis H1: μ ≠ 0.). Asterisks indicate that the null-hypothesis was rejected (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)