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Table 3 Gastrointestinal bleeding events – average attributable costs per patient, EUR (2015 prices)

From: Costs of major intracranial, gastrointestinal and other bleeding events in patients with atrial fibrillation – a nationwide cohort study

  3-years costs (present value calculated in the incidence year)a Annual attributable cost estimates (not discounted)b
Year 0 (incidence year) Year 1 after the bleeding event Year 2 after the bleeding event
Direct costs
 Healthcare 14,492 12,736 1796 658
  Inpatient hospital care 13,453 12,090*** 1521*** 475
  Outpatient hospital care 852 516*** 249** 142
  Private practice health prof. −4 79*** −42*** −46**
  Prescribed medicine 190 51*** 68*** 88***
 Social care services 3060 851 1138 1339
  Home help 1840 437*** 696*** 874***
  Nursing home 1219 414** 442** 465*
Indirect costs
 Productivity loss 317 115 160 66
 Direct and indirect costs 17,868 13,702 3093 2063
  1. aSee Table 2
  2. bSee Table 2
  3. Asterisks indicate that the null-hypothesis was rejected (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)