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Table 4 Subgroup analysis stratified by the four most common reasons for admission

From: Clinical factors contributing to high cost hospitalizations in a Canadian tertiary care centre

Variablea Reason for admission
Complex medical (n = 98) Elective surgery (n = 28) Emergent surgery (n = 28) Trauma (n = 23)
Age at admission - Mean (SD), years 70 (15) 67 (12) 64 (14) 75 (15)
Male 44 (45%) 18 (64%) 15 (54%) 8 (35%)
Admitted route Emergent 84 (86%) 5 (18%) 23 (82%) 23 (100%)
Elective 5 (5%) 21 (75%) 2 (7%) 0 (0%)
Urgent 9 (9%) 2 (7%) 3 (11%) 0 (0%)
Elixhauser Comorbidity Score - Mean (SD) 8.5 (6.6) 5.2 (5.7) 3.4 (4.1) 5.7 (5.5)
Total LOS (days) - Median (IQR) 24 (19–47) 16 (10–28) 31 (15–51) 29 (22–58)
Acute LOS (days) – Median (IQR) 21 (15–28) 16 (10–28) 25 (14–46) 21 (19–29)
ICU Days >0 34 (35%) 6 (21%) 11 (39%) 4 (17%)
Median (IQR) 9 (7–13) 7 (3–8) 8 (4–24) 5 (3–11)
ALC Days >0 36 (37%) 0 (0%) 8 (29%) 12 (52%)
Median (IQR) 28 (17–38) 0 18 (13–35) 27 (13–62)
Total Cost (CDN) – Median (IQR) $34,680 (23,969–54,258) $34,137 (23,844–45,713) $41,738 (23,475–83,092) $38,529 (23,958–53,893)
Discharge Disposition Died 20 (20%) 1 (4%) 4 (14%) 2 (9%)
Home 18 (18%) 9 (32%) 6 (21%) 0 (0%)
Home with supportive services 22 (22%) 14 (50%) 7 (25%) 6 (26%)
Other acute care facility 6 (6%) 2 (7%) 4 (14%) 3 (13%)
Long-term care 29 (30%) 2 (7%) 7 (25%) 12 (52%)
Other 3 (3%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Complications 62 (63%) 17 (61%) 19 (68%) 8 (35%)
Services delay 42 (43%) 5 (18%) 12 (43%) 14 (61%)
Disposition delay 54 (55%) 3 (11%) 15 (54%) 20 (87%)
Inefficient clinical decision-making 19 (19%) 2 (7%) 2 (7%) 2 (9%)
Inpatient encounters in 365 days post discharge Total accumulated inpatient days Mean (SD) 14 (36) 12 (18) 16 (29) 18 (40)
0 visits 59 (60%) 14 (50%) 14 (50%) 13 (57%)
1 visit 22 (22%) 6 (21%) 7 (25%) 9 (39%)
2 visits 9 (9%) 6 (21%) 2 (7%) 0 (0%)
3 visits 5 (5%) 2 (7%) 4 (14%) 0 (0%)
4+ visits 3 (3%) 0 (0%) 1 (4%) 1 (4%)
  1. Note: Patients admitted for “cancer with chemotherapy”, “maternal”, or “social” reasons were not reported in this table due to low numbers (10 or fewer total encounters per category). Abbreviations: ALC Alternate Level of Care, ICU Intensive Care Unit, IQR Inter-quartile Range, LOS Length of Stay, SD Standard Deviation
  2. a All statistical testing across reasons for admission were statistically significant (based on either the chi-squared test for proportions, t-test for means, or Kruskal-Wallis test for medians). Therefore p-values for each estimate are not reported