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Table 1 Descriptive statistics by PNCP implementation status (N = 117)

From: The cost of a pediatric neurocritical care program for traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Before PNCP implementation (n = 58) N (%) or mean +/− SD After PNCP implementation (n = 59) N (%) or mean +/− SD) p-value
Sex (male) 32 (55%) 33 (56%) 0.934
Race (non-white) 14 (24%) 17 (29%) 0.567
Injury mechanism (motor vehicle) 36 (62.1%) 41 (69.5%) 0.397
Age at admission (years)
 Mean (SD) 11.0 (4.7) 11.9 (4.5) 0.271
 Median (IQR) 12.1 (8.4–14.6) 12.4 (8.7–16.2) 0.250
--- 0 to 5 9 (15.5%) 8 (13.6%) 0.601
--- 6 to 11 19 (32.8%) 19 (32.2%)  
--- 12 to 15 20 (34.5%) 16 (27.1%)  
--- 16 to 18 10 (17.2%) 16 (27.1%)  
Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)a
 Mean (SD) 5.1 (1.8) 4.5 (1.6) 0.041
 Median (IQR) 5.0 (3.0–7.0) 4.0 (3.0–6.0) 0.047
  GCS 3–5 N (%) 23 (39.7%) 33 (55.9%) 0.078
  GCS >5 N (%) 35 (60.3%) 26 (44.1%)  
Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score (PRISM III)
 Mean (SD) 5.4 (4.3) 5.9 (5.8) 0.557
 Median (IQR) 4.5 (2.0–9.0) 5.0 (2.0–8.0) 0.928
  1st Quartile N (%) 6 (10.3%) 9 (15.3%) 0.877
  2nd Quartile N (%) 23 (39.7%) 16 (27.1%)  
  3rd Quartile N (%) 14 (24.1%) 22 (37.3%)  
  4th Quartile N (%) 15 (25.9%) 12 (20.3%)  
PICU length of stay (days)
 Mean (SD) 12.0 (7.9) 14.7 (9.0) 0.090
 Median (IQR) 12.0 (6.0–15.0) 14.0 (7.0–22.0) 0.097
  1st Quartile N (%) 10 (17.2%) 8 (13.6%) 0.144
  2nd Quartile N (%) 18 (31.0%) 15 (25.4%)  
  3rd Quartile N (%) 19 (32.8%) 16 (27.1%)  
  4th Quartile N (%) 11 (19.0%) 20 (33.9%)  
General/Floor length of stay (days)
 Mean (SD) 33.7 (33.4) 30.3 (28.7) 0.549
 Median (IQR) 26.0 (7.0–42.0) 22.0 (8.0–38.0) 0.664
  1st Quartile N (%) 14 (24.1%) 11 (18.6%) 0.700
  2nd Quartile N (%) 11 (19.0%) 19 (32.2%)  
  3rd Quartile N (%) 16 (27.6%) 15 (25.4%)  
  4th Quartile N (%) 17 (29.3%) 14 (23.7%)  
Overall hospital length of stay (days)
 Mean (SD) 45.8 (38.3) 45.0 (34.1) 0.908
 Median (IQR) 34.0 (17.0–56.0) 37.0 (17.0–58.0) 0.946
Total inpatient cost percentageb 100 (78.0) 107 (72.4) 0.607
 Mean (SD) 100.0 (78.0) 107.2 (72.4) 0.607
 Median (IQR) 67.6 (46.9–119.6) 88.7 (57.5–132.2) 0.377
  1. aGCS score < 8 is considered sTBI. GCS scores in the study population ranged between 3 and 8
  2. bPercentage is based on mean total cost pre-PNCP
  3. PNCP - Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program
  4. PICU – Pediatric Intensive Care Unit