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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of services provided before and after PNCP implementation status (N = 117)

From: The cost of a pediatric neurocritical care program for traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study

  Utilization per Patient % Change in Cost per Item % Change in Total Cost per Patient
Service Type Pre-PNCC Mean/SD (N out of 58) Post-PNCC Mean/SD (N out of 59) p-value % change from Pre-PNCC p-value % change from Pre-PNCC p-value
Admission CT scans per patient 0.95/0.22 (55) 0.97/0.32 (55) 0.727 −41% 0.001* −40% 0.001*
Subsequent CT scans per patient 2.62/2.43 (51) 2.24/1.76 (48) 0.331 −36% 0.001* −46% 0.018*
End Tidal CO2 (days monitored) 7.98/6.65 (52) 11.37/7.82 (57) 0.013* −6% 0.001* +47.8% 0.005*
ICP Monitoring (days monitored) 2.59/3.02 (35) 4.44/5.49 (42) 0.026* −8% 0.002* +57.4% 0.059
External Ventricular Drains (EVD) (ave.# procedures per patient) 0.21/0.41 (12) 0.05/0.22 (3) 0.013* (not available)   (not available)  
Hyperosmolar Therapy: 3% Hypertonic Saline or Mannitol (doses per patient) 4.83/5.70 (42) 8.46/8.26 (52) 0.007* +22% 0.027* +77.8% 0.056
Pentobarbital (doses per patient) 0.43/0.80 (17) 1.66/3.24 (19) 0.006* +2325% 0.001* +13,638% 0.005*
Epinephrine (infusions per patient) 0.09/0.28 (5) 0.10/0.36 (5) 0.796 +30% 0.430 +155.9% 0.291
Norepinephrine (infusions per patient) (no utilization) 0.53/1.44 (9) n/a (no pre-PNCC utilization) n/a (no pre-PNCC utilization) n/a
Dopamine (infusions per patient) 1.48/3.09 (19) 1.63/2.89 (23) 0.795 −14% 0.567 +18.8% 0.810
Fentanyl (doses per patient) 8.17/6.94 (56) 8.86/5.31 (59) 0.546 +129% 0.001* +361.7% <0.001*
Midazolam (doses per patient) 7.64/5.85 (57) 9.95/6.07 (56) 0.038* −73% 0.001* −34.8% 0.262
Morphine (doses per patient) 2.55/2.99 (34) 12.24/12.62 (49) 0.001* −28% 0.129 +363.5% 0.020*
Dexmedetomidine (infusions per patient) (no utilization) 2.14/3.46 (29) n/a (no pre-PNCC utilization) n/a (no pre-PNCC utilization) n/a
sTBI-care labs (lab tests per patient) 56.83/39.28 (58) 69.88/42.37 (59) 0.087 −6% 0.023* +16.0% 0.272
Sodium monitoring (ave.# tests per patient) 0.45/0.50 (26) 0.54/0.50 (32) N/S (not available)   (not available)  
Osmolality monitoring (ave.# tests per patient) 0.72/0.45 (42) 0.78/0.42 (46) N/S (not available)   (not available)  
EEG monitoring (ave.# tests per patient) 0.22/0.42 (13) 0.31/0.46 (18) N/S (not available)   (not available)  
  1. *p-values below 0.05 indicate service type encountering statistical significance
  2. †See Table 4 for details about sTBI-care labs
  3. ‡Admission CT per patient mean is <1.0 because some patients receive initial CT from referring hospitals
  4. PNCP Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program; CT computerized tomography; ICP intracranial pressure; sTBI severe traumatic brain injury