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Table 5 Baseline characteristics of the population and of LIMIT participants

From: The low indexes of metabolism intervention trial (LIMIT): design and baseline data of a randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate how alerting primary care teams to low metabolic values, could affect the health of patients aged 75 or older

Characteristic All members at age 75+ All LIMIT groups Group A (BMI criterion a)
Trial Arm   Total Email No Email Total Email No Email
N 48,623 8584 4310 4274 732 370 362
North District 22,132 3490 1774 1716 341 161 180
(45.5%) (40.7%) (41.2%) (40.1%) (46.6%) (43.5%) (49.7%)
N Gender - Female 28,685 4977 2504 2473 417 210 207
(59%) (58%) (58%) (58%) (57%) (57%) (57%)
Age [years] 81.6 80.7 80.6 80.8 83.4 82.9 83.8
(±5.4) (±4.8) (±4.7) (±4.9) (±5.9) (±5.7) (±6.2)
N Age ≥ 90 years 4722 488 232 256 125 54 71
(9.7%) (5.7%) (5.4%) (6%) (17.1%) (14.6%) (19.6%)
Last BMI [kg/m2] 28.5 28.8 28.7 28.8 20.6 20.5 20.6
(±5.2) (±5.9) (±5.9) (±5.9) (±2.0) (±2.0) (±2.0)
N Last BMI < 20 kg/m2 1248 323 149 174 228 122 106
(2.6%) (3.8%) (3.5%) (4.1%) (31.1%) (33%) (29.3%)
N with Dietitian counseling 1159 240 113 127 0 0 0
(2.4%) (2.8%) (2.6%) (3%) (0%) (0%) (0%)
HbA1c% 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.2 6
(±1.1) (±0.9) (±0.9) (±0.9) (±1.1) (±1.2) (±0.9)
N HbA1c% ≤ 5.7 12,741 1787 899 888 264 128 136
(26.2%) (20.8%) (20.9%) (20.8%) (36.1%) (34.6%) (37.6%)
N With DM Medicines 12,131 5566 2771 2795 89 50 39
(24.9%) (64.8%) (64.3%) (65.4%) (12.2%) (13.5%) (10.8%)
Cholesterol [mg/dL] 177.2 154.3 154.6 154.1 176.2 176.2 176.2
(±41.9) (±33.8) (±33.8) (±33.8) (±43.3) (±43.0) (±43.6)
N Chol. < 160 mg/dL 17,574 6062 3037 3025 262 125 137
(36.1%) (70.6%) (70.5%) (70.8%) (35.8%) (33.8%) (37.8%)
N With Cholesterol-lowering Medicines 24,025 6802 3402 3400 228 124 104
(49.4%) (79.2%) (78.9%) (79.6%) (31.1%) (33.5%) (28.7%)
N s/p MI 8928 1027 489 538 176 99 77
(18.4%) (12%) (11.3%) (12.6%) (24%) (26.8%) (21.3%)
N s/p CVA/TIA /IHD 22,139 2489 1221 1268 389 210 179
(45.5%) (29%) (28.3%) (29.7%) (53.1%) (56.8%) (49.4%)
Characteristic Group B Group C Group D
(HbA1c criterion b) (cholesterol criterion c) (criteria a + b)
Trial Arm Total Email No Email Total Email No Email Total Email No Email
N 3365 1705 1660 3625 1801 1824 64 33 31
North District 1412 713 699 1417 684 733 32 18 14
(42%) (41.8%) (42.1%) (39.1%) (38%) (40.2%) (50%) (54.5%) (45.2%)
N Gender - Female 1989 999 990 2038 1027 1011 39 19 20
(59%) (59%) (60%) (56%) (57%) (55%) (61%) (58%) (65%)
Age [years] 81 80.9 81.1 80 80 80 80.6 79.9 81.4
(±4.8) (±4.6) (±4.9) (±4.4) (±4.4) (±4.3) (±5.0) (±4.3) (±5.6)
N Age ≥ 90 years 211 103 108 129 66 63 3 1 2
(6.3%) (6%) (6.5%) (3.6%) (3.7%) (3.5%) (4.7%) (3%) (6.5%)
Last BMI [Kg/m2] 29.8 29.8 29.7 29.7 29.7 29.7 21 20.9 21.2
(±5.4) (±5.4) (±5.4) (±5.5) (±5.4) (±5.6) (±1.4) (±1.5) (±1.3)
N Last BMI < 20 38 20 18 27 15 12 14 9 5
(1.1%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (21.9%) (27.3%) (16.1%)
N with Dietitian counseling 92 52 40 117 57 60 0 0 0
(2.7%) (3%) (2.4%) (3.2%) (3.2%) (3.3%) (0%) (0%) (0%)
HbA1c% 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.6 6.6 6.6 5.9 6 5.9
(±0.4) (±0.4) (±0.4) (±1.2) (±1.2) (±1.2) (±0.4) (±0.4) (±0.5)
N HbA1c% ≤ 5.7 582 285 297 809 411 398 20 8 12
(17.3%) (16.7%) (17.9%) (22.3%) (22.8%) (21.8%) (31.3%) (24.2%) (38.7%)
N With DM Medicines 3365 1705 1660 1281 621 660 64 33 31
(100%) (100%) (100%) (35.3%) (34.5%) (36.2%) (100%) (100%) (100%)
Chol.[mg/dL] 169.3 169.3 169.3 139.5 139.7 139.3 167.4 168.2 166.5
(±39.0) (±39.2) (±38.8) (±15.3) (±14.9) (±15.7) (±39.9) (±41.5) (±38.1)
N Chol < 160 1365 690 675 3625 1801 1824 24 13 11
(40.6%) (40.5%) (40.7%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (37.5%) (39.4%) (35.5%)
N With Chol.-low Medicines 2120 1057 1063 3625 1801 1824 31 17 14
(63%) (62%) (64%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (48.4%) (51.5%) (45.2%)
N s/p MI 832 430 402 0 0 0 19 9 10
(24.7%) (25.2%) (24.2%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (29.7%) (27.3%) (32.3%)
N s/p CVA/ TIA /IHD 2062 1037 1025 0 0 0 38 21 17
(61.3%) (60.8%) (61.7%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (59.4%) (63.6%) (54.8%)
Characteristic Group E Group F Group G
(criteria a + c) (criteria b + c) (criteria a + b + c)
Trial Arm Total Email No Email Total Email No Email Total Email No Email
N 41 21 20 749 376 373 8 4 4
North District 13 9 4 271 129 142 4 2 2
(31.7%) (42.9%) (20%) (36.2%) (34.3%) (38.1%) (50%) (50%) (50%)
N Gender Female 29 13 16 459 233 226 6 3 3
(71%) (62%) (80%) (61%) (62%) (61%) (75%) (75%) (75%)
Age [years] 82.7 83.4 82 79.5 79.2 79.8 79.4 82.8 76
(±4.5) (±4.7) (±4.1) (±4.1) (±3.9) (±4.2) (±4.5) (±4.0) (±1.2)
N Age ≥ 90 years 2 1 1 18 7 11 0 0 0
(4.9%) (4.8%) (5%) (2.4%) (1.9%) (2.9%) (0%) (0%) (0%)
Last BMI [kg/m2] 20.8 21 20.6 30.2 30.2 30.2 21.5 21 21.9
(±1.7) (±1.7) (±1.7) (±5.4) (±5.7) (±5.2) (±1.3) (±1.7) (±0.7)
N Last BMI < 20 11 4 7 4 3 1 1 0 1
(26.8%) (19%) (35%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.3%) (12.5%) (0%) (25%)
N with Dietitian counseling 0 0 0 31 18 13 0 0 0
(0%) (0%) (0%) (4.1%) (4.8%) (3.5%) (0%) (0%) (0%)
HbA1c% 6.5 6.4 6.7 6.1 6.1 6.1 5.9 6 5.8
(±1.8) (±1.4) (±2.2) (±0.3) (±0.3) (±0.3) (±0.3) (±0.2) (±0.3)
N HbA1c% ≤ 5.7 10 6 4 100 49 51 2 1 1
(24.4%) (28.6%) (20%) (13.4%) (13%) (13.7%) (25%) (25%) (25%)
N With DM Medicines 10 6 4 749 376 373 8 4 4
(24.4%) (28.6%) (20%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%)
Chol.[mg/dL] 138.5 136.1 141.1 137.4 137.5 137.2 125.1 134.8 115.5
(±16.2) (±15.9) (±16.2) (±16.1) (±16.1) (±16.1) (±19.6) (±14.3) (±19.6)
N Chol < 160 41 21 20 749 376 373 8 4 4
(100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%)
N With Chol.lowering Medicines 41 21 20 749 376 373 8 4 4
(100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%)
N s/p MI 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%)
N s/p CVA/ TIA /IHD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%)
  1. BMI Body mass index, CHS Clalit health services, Chol. Cholesterol, CVA Cerebrovascular accident, DM Diabetes mellitus, IHD Ischemic heart disease, MI Myocardial infarct, N Number, s/p Status post, TIA Transient ischemic attack
  2. CHS North and South district 75+ members and LIMIT participants’ data, presented as N (%) or mean (±SD)