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Table 1 Selected baseline demographic, clinical, and service utilization characteristics at the time of application to the New York City supportive housing program by placement status

From: Impact of a New York City supportive housing program on Medicaid expenditure patterns among people with serious mental illness and chronic homelessness

   Before propensity score matching After propensity score matching
Total Placed Unplaced p-values Placed Unplaced p-values
N 2827 737 2090   737 2090  
  Column %   Column %  
Age at the first eligibility for the program
 18–34 years 16 15 16 0.07 15 15 0.61
 35–44 years 26 27 26   27 27  
 45–54 years 38 41 37   40 42  
  ≥ 55 years 20 17 21   18 16  
Gender
 Female 30 29 30 0.44 29 29 1.00
 Male 70 71 70   71 71  
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white 15 14 16 0.09 15 14 0.22
 Non-Hispanic black 54 52 54   51 54  
 Hispanic 28 31 27   31 28  
 Others 3 4 3   3 4  
Education
 Less than a high school diploma 46 44 47 0.14 45 45 0.28
 High school diploma or higher 51 53 51   52 53  
 Other 3 3 2   3 2  
Current substance use pattern
 Never 74 78 73 0.03 79 75 0.28
 Less than weekly or once a week 7 6 8   5 6  
 Several times per week 8 8 8   7 8  
 Daily 6 5 6   6 7  
 Unknown 5 3 5   3 4  
Currently participating in a substance use treatment course 23 25 23 0.27 25 25 1.00
Currently receiving supplemental security income/disability 41 39 41 0.34 41 42 0.64
Past psychiatric hospitalization 31 27 32 0.01 28 29 0.61
Diagnoses with mental illness except for substance use disorders 100 100 100 NEa 99 99 1.00
Diagnosed with substance use disorders 52 54 51 0.16 52 53 0.64
Number activities of daily living for which require assistance
 0 74 79 71 <0.01 77 79 0.36
 1 15 13 16   14 12  
 2+ 11 8 13   9 9  
  Mean (Standard deviation)   Mean (Standard deviation)  
Total Medicaid costs during 2 years prior to baseline $47,284 (64714) $41,779 (47718) $49,226 (69632)   $42,225 (59689b) $42,653 (59689b)  
  1. Abbreviations: NE Not estimable
  2. aNot estimable because variance could not be estimated
  3. bPooled standard deviation
  4. Data sources: NYC Department of Homeless Services, NYC Department of Correction, NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, NYC Human Resources Administration’s Customized Assistance Services and HIV/AIDS Services Administration, and New York State Office of Mental Health