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Table 2 Selected baseline demographic, clinical, and service utilization characteristics at the time of application to the New York City supportive housing program by Medicaid expenditure patterns

From: Impact of a New York City supportive housing program on Medicaid expenditure patterns among people with serious mental illness and chronic homelessness

  Very low coverage Low user Middle user Emerging user Second-highest user High user p-values
N: total 432 292 481 663 545 414  
N: placed vs. unplaced 71 vs. 361 71 vs. 221 140 vs. 341 172 vs. 491 186 vs. 359 97 vs. 317  
     Column %    
Age at the first eligibility for the program        
 18–34 years 20 9 19 21 11 12 <  0.01
 35–44 years 19 23 27 28 25 32  
 45–54 years 34 41 32 37 44 43  
  ≥ 55 years 27 28 21 14 20 13  
Gender
 Female 23 24 37 27 38 28 < 0.01
 Male 77 76 63 73 62 72  
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white 17 16 14 15 16 11 < 0.01
 Non-Hispanic black 58 58 56 51 45 58  
 Hispanic 22 22 27 29 36 29  
 Others 3 3 3 4 3 2  
Education
 Less than a high school diploma 43 38 45 43 50 56 < 0.01
 High school diploma or higher 54 58 53 54 47 43  
 Others 3 4 2 3 3 1  
Current substance use pattern
 Never 73 64 77 76 80 67 < 0.01
 Less than weekly or once a week 8 8 5 7 6 11  
 Several times per week 8 11 7 8 8 9  
 Daily 8 11 5 5 4 6  
 Unknown 4 5 5 5 2 7  
Currently participating in a substance use treatment course 9 9 11 22 43 36 < 0.01
Past psychiatric hospitalization 28 27 28 30 30 43 < 0.01
Currently receiving supplemental security income/disability 28 51 43 26 53 50 < 0.01
Diagnoses with mental illness except for substance use disorders 100 100 100 100 100 100 0.74
Diagnosed with substance use disorders 48 49 43 48 56 69 < 0.01
Number activities of daily living for which require assistance
 0 70 70 76 78 73 69 < 0.01
 1 16 15 12 15 16 17  
 2+ 14 15 12 7 11 14  
  Mean (standard deviation)
Total Medicaid costs during 2 years prior to baseline $6538 (18,831) $24,504 (39,554) $20,349 (19,700) $32,042 (32,975) $56,683 (34,390) $149,203 (97,882)  
Specific Medicaid costs during 2 years prior to baselinea
 Outpatient care $799 (2269) $2039 (3505) $3120 (3921) $6134 (8576) $16,170 (12,137) $17,255 (18,254)  
 Inpatient care $4583 (17,523) $18,116 (36,986) $9014 (17,980) $17,430 (29,223) $19,131 (30,993) $88,800 (92,682)  
 Emergency department visits $134 (360) $528 (1102) $531 (1030) $771 (1219) $1167 (2410) $2342 (4782)  
 Prescription drugs $396 (1415) $1343 (2943) $2313 (3064) $3857 (6253) $11,222 (10,156) $22,664 (28,724)  
Medicaid coverage days during 2 years prior to baseline 104 (107) 650 (101) 589 (144) 385 (114) 648 (100) 641 (102)  
  1. aSum of specific Medicaid costs did not match up with total Medicaid costs because other Medicaid costs were not reported in this table
  2. Data sources: NYC Department of Homeless Services, NYC Department of Correction, NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, NYC Human Resources Administration’s Customized Assistance Services and HIV/AIDS Services Administration, and New York State Office of Mental Health