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Table 1 Individual characteristics of respondents by abusive and disrespectful treatment, Muanda and Bolenge, 2014

From: Factors influencing the capacity of women to voice their concerns about maternal health services in the Muanda and Bolenge Health Zones, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a multi-method study

Variables   Experiences of mistreatment  
  Total Yes (n = 26) No (n = 491) p
Health zone     0.082
 Muanda 195 (37.7%) 14 (7.2%) 181 (92.8%)  
 Bolenge 322 (62.3%) 12 (3.7%) 310 (96.3%)  
Health catchment area     0.054*
 Kitona 98 (19.0%) 5 (5.1%) 93 (94.9%)  
 Nsiamfumu 97 (18.8%) 9 (9.3%) 88 (90.7%)  
 Iyonda 160 (30.9%) 3 (1.9%) 157 (98.1%)  
 Wendji Secli 162 (31.3%) 9 (5.6%) 153 (94.4%)  
Age     0.259
 Younger than 20 years 113 (21.9%) 8 (7.1%) 105 (92.9%)  
 20 years and older 404 (78.1%) 18 (4.5%) 386 (95.5%)  
Age (mean ± SD) 25.8 ± 7.3 25.4 ± 7.8 25.8 ± 7.3 0.757
Age (median, range) 24.0 (15–48)    
Education level     1.000
 Below secondary school 489 (94.6%) 16 (3.3%) 462 (96.7%)  
 Secondary school and above 28 (5.4%) 0 (0.0%) 28 (100.0%)  
Marital status     0.384
 Live in partnership 447 (86.5%) 21 (4.7%) 426 (95.3%)  
 Live out of partnership 70 (13.5%) 5 (7.1%) 65 (92.9%)  
Respondent’s occupation     0.496
 Civil servant/police/army 4 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%) 4 (100.0%)  
 Private sector employee 8 (1.5%) 0 (0.0%) 8 (100.0%)  
 Farmer/fisherman 205 (39.7%) 9 (4.4%) 196 (95.4%)  
 Small trader/odd jobs 146 (28.2%) 7 (4.8%) 139 (95.2%)  
 No specific job 154 (29.8%) 10 (6.5%) 144 (93.5%)  
Respondent’s religion     0.768
 Catholic 191 (36.9%) 9 (4.7%) 182 (95.3%)  
 Protestant 98 (19.0%) 5 (5.1%) 93 (94.9%)  
 Other Christian churches 206 (39.8%) 11 (5.3%) 189 (94.7%)  
 Others (Muslim, Animist, Agnostic, Atheist) 22 (4.3%) 1 (4.5%) 21 (95.5%)  
Mode of transportation     0.536
 On foot 375 (72.5%) 18 (4.8%) 357 (95.2%)  
 Bicycle 44 (8.5%) 1 (2.3%) 43 (97.7%)  
 Motorcycles and cars 98 (19.0%) 7 (7.1%) 91 (92.9%)  
Respondent ‘s category     0.503
 Pregnant 149 (28.8%) 9 (6.0%) 140 (94.0%)  
 Recently delivered 368 (71.2%) 17 (4.6%) 351 (94.4%)  
Number of deliveries (mean ± SD) 3.3 ± 2.4 3.4 ± 2.8 3.3 ± 2.4 0.786
Number of deliveries (median, range) 3.00 (0–12) 2.50 (0–12) 3.00 (0–11) 0.741
Childbirth     0.949
 No previous birth and first birth 142 (27.5%) 7 (4.9%) 135 (95.1%)  
 2 births and more 375 (72.5%) 19 (5.1%) 356 (94.9%)  
Health provision location     0.948
 Local health area centre 368 (71.2%) 19 (5.2%) 349 (94.8%)  
 Other health area facility 49 (9.5%) 2 (4.1%) 47 (95.9%)  
 Health facility out of health area 100 (19.3%) 5 (5.0%) 95 (95.0%)  
Distance residence-health facility (Km) (mean ± SD) 3.2 ± 4.1 4.1 ± 6.2 3.1 ± 3.9 0.231
Informed about health centres activities (yes) 359 (62.9%) 10 (2.8%) 349 (97.2%) 0.000
Health centres collect users’ views (Yes) 288 (55.7%) 10 (3.5%) 278 (96.5%) 0.069
Complications (Yes) 97 (18.8%) 5 (5.2%) 92 (94.8%) 0.168
Ethnicity (Bantus) 499 (96.5%) 26 (5.2%) 473 (94.8%) 0.320
Native of the territory/indigenous (Yes) 255 (49.3%) 15 (5.9%) 240 (94.1%) 0.381
Knew or heard about a relative or a neighbour who experienced described situation (Yes) 38 (7.4%) 2 (7.7%) 36 (7.3%) 0.945