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Table 1 Characteristics of Medicare Beneficiaries with a Majority of Primary Care Clinician Visits to an FQHC in 2013 Compared with Medicare Beneficiaries Who Received Primary Care Elsewhere

From: Utilization of health care services among Medicare beneficiaries who visit federally qualified health centers

Characteristic FQHC Users (n = 130,569) Unmatched FQHC Non-Users (n = 1,000,000) Matched FQHC Non-Users (n = 130,569)
Demographics
Age
 18-64 42.3% 16.1%† 42.7%
 65-74 36.1% 40.9%† 35.7%
 75-84 16.2% 29.1%† 16.3%
 85+ 5.4% 13.9%† 5.3%
Race/Ethnicity
 White 67.7% 85.2%† 67.6%
 Black 18.8% 9.1%† 19.8%
 Hispanic 7.1% 1.7%† 6.0%
 Asian 2.7% 1.7%† 2.9%
 Other/Unknown 3.7% 2.3%† 3.7%
Gender
 Male 41.4% 38.8%† 40.8%*
 Female 58.6% 61.2%† 59.2%
Disabled 52.2% 23.9%† 52.9%
End-Stage Renal Disease Status 0.8% 0.6%† 0.9%
Previously Institutionalized 3.3% 8.1%† 3.3%
Medicaid-Eligible 56.5% 21.0%† 56.8%
Region
 Northeast 19.7% 18.2%† 19.0%
 Midwest 18.1% 23.6%† 18.7%
 South 34.2% 42.4%† 36.5%
 West 28.0% 15.8%† 25.7%
Urban/Rural Status
 Urban 72.8% 84.6%† 72.6%
 Rural/Isolated 27.2% 15.4%† 27.4%
Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status (SES)
 Median Annual Household Income, Mean $44,565 $55,812† $44,301
 Percent of Residents with Less than High School Diploma (Age 25+), Mean 18.4% 13.4%† 18.5%
 Percent of Male Residents Unemployed (Age 16+), Mean 12.4% 10.3%† 12.5%
 Percent of Female-Headed Households with Children, Mean 12.8% 10.6%† 13.0%
 Percent of Households with Public Assistance Income, Mean 3.8% 2.6%† 3.8%
 Percent of Individuals with Annual Income Below Federal Poverty Level, Mean 20.1% 14.8%† 20.3%
Comorbid Conditions
 Cancer 10.9% 17.0%† 10.7%
 Cardiovascular Disease 16.1% 24.8%† 16.2%
 Chronic Heart Failure 16.8% 21.3%† 17.1%
 Chronic Lung Disease 19.4% 19.3% 19.9%*
 Diabetes 40.5% 37.2%† 41.2%*
 Gastrointestinal Disorders 3.0% 4.2%† 3.1%
 HIV 1.3% 0.3%† 1.2%
 Moderate or End-Stage Liver Disease 3.2% 1.8%† 3.2%
 Neurological Disorders 17.9% 19.0%† 18.3%*
 Pancreatic Disease 2.0% 2.3%† 2.0%
 Severe Mental Health Disorders 17.5% 10.6%† 17.5%
 Stroke 5.6% 7.6%† 5.7%
 Substance Abuse Disorders 5.6% 2.7%† 5.5%
 Severe Hematological Disorders 0.5% 0.8%† 0.5%
 Vascular Disorders 14.8% 23.5%† 15.2%*
 Total Number of Comorbid Conditions, Mean 1.8 1.9† 1.8*
  1. The unmatched analysis compares FQHC users and all 1,000,000 FQHC non-users. The matched analysis compares FQHC users and a subset of all 1,000,000 non-users after a 1:1 propensity match between FQHC users and FQHC non-users
  2. *p < 0.05; †p < 0.001
  3. FQHC Federally Qualified Health Center