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Table 2 Comparison of Healthcare Utilization Between Medicare Beneficiaries with a Majority of Primary Care Clinician Visits to an FQHC in 2013 and Medicare Beneficiaries Who Received Primary Care Elsewhere

From: Utilization of health care services among Medicare beneficiaries who visit federally qualified health centers

  FQHC Users (n = 130,569) Unmatched FQHC Non-Users (n = 1,000,000) Matched FQHC Non-Users (n = 130,569)
Mean number of visits Percent of beneficiaries with at least one Mean number of visits Percent of beneficiaries with at least one Mean number of visits Percent of beneficiaries with at least one
Ambulatory Visits
 Any ambulatory visit 10.0 100.0% 12.0† 100.0% 11.2† 100.0%
  Primary care 6.2 100.0% 6.7† 100.0% 6.8† 100.0%
  Specialty care 3.8 73.7% 5.3† 83.8%† 4.5† 78.1%†
 At an FQHC 5.8 100.0% 0.0† 0.0%† 0.0† 0.0%†
  Primary care 5.5 100.0% 0.0† 0.0%† 0.0† 0.0%†
  Specialty care 0.3 9.8% 0.0† 0.0%† 0.0† 0.0%†
 At site other than FQHC 4.2 77.3% 12.0† 100.0%† 11.2† 100.0%†
  Primary care 0.7 33.7% 6.7† 100.0%† 6.8† 100.0%†
  Specialty care 3.5 70.9% 5.3† 83.8%† 4.5† 78.1%†
ED visits
 Any ED visit 1.2 44.5% 0.8† 39.3%† 1.0† 41.5%†
  Chronic ACSC 0.1 5.9% 0.1† 4.6%† 0.1† 4.8%†
  Other 1.1 42.7% 0.8† 37.8%t 0.9† 40.0%†
 With admission only 0.2 13.3% 0.2† 15.8%† 0.2* 12.7%†
  Chronic ACSC 0.0 2.2% 0.0 2.3% 0.0* 2.0%*
  Other 0.2 11.9% 0.2† 14.6%† 0.2* 11.4%*
 Without admission only 1.0 39.8% 0.6† 31.9%† 0.8† 36.4%†
  Chronic ACSC 0.1 4.3% 0.0† 2.7%† 0.0† 3.3%†
  Other 0.9 38.3% 0.6† 30.8%† 0.8† 35.2%†
Hospitalizations
 Any hospitalization 0.3 19.1% 0.4† 23.0%† 0.3 18.8%
  Chronic ACSC 0.0 2.9% 0.0 2.9% 0.0 2.6%*
  Other 0.3 17.6% 0.3† 21.7%† 0.3 17.5%
  1. The unmatched analysis compares FQHC users and all 1,000,000 FQHC non-users. The matched analysis compares FQHC users and a subset of all 1,000,000 non-users after a 1:1 propensity match between FQHC users and FQHC non-users
  2. *p < 0.05; †p < 0.001
  3. FQHC Federally Qualified Health Center, ACSC Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition, ED Emergency Department