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Table 3 Characteristics of interventions (N = 740)

From: Evaluation of the implementation of a clinical pharmacy service on an acute internal medicine ward in Italy

Drug-related problem Interventions n (%) Drugs involved
No specific problem*,1 118 (15.9) antibacterials for systemic use, psycholeptics, drugs used in diabetes, diuretics
Prescription writing error 89 (12.0) beta blocking agents, anti-parkinson drugs, psycholeptics
Inappropriate follow-up 83 (11.2) drugs used in diabetes, psychoanaleptics, drugs for acid related disorders, calcium channel blockers
Less costly alternative 74 (10.0) drugs for acid related disorders, lipid modifying agents, psycholeptics, vitamins
Error in medication history 72 (9.7) anti-parkinson drugs, analgesics, beta blocking agents, psychoanaleptics
Wrong dose 66 (8.9) cardiac therapy (digoxin), drugs used in diabetes, vitamins, beta blocking agents
Underuse 54 (7.3) antianemic preparations, lipid modifying agents
Inappropriate choice of medicine 37 (5.0) antibacterials for systemic use, antithrombotic agents, psycholeptics
Inappropriate modalities of administration*,2 36 (4.9) antibacterials for systemic use, analgesics
Drug-drug interaction 20 (2.7) Analgesics
Adverse drug reaction suspected or confirmed*,3 16 (2.2) psycholeptics, psychoanaleptics*,4
Duplication 15 (2.0) drugs for acid related disorders, drugs for obstructive airway diseases
Inappropriate duration of therapy 12 (1.6) Vitamins
No valid indication 12 (1.6) Miscellaneous
Modalities of administration not practical for the patient 8 (1.1) Miscellaneous
Drug-disease interaction (including allergy) 6 (0.8) Miscellaneous
Other 22 (3.0) Miscellaneous
  1. *,1No underlying drug-related problem; i.e. the clinical pharmacist is asked a drug-related question by a physician in the absence of a drug-related problem regarding a specific patient
  2. *,2Modalities of administration refer to frequency of administration, time, route and formulation
  3. *,3An adverse drug reaction was defined as a noxious and unintended reaction that occurs at drug doses used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy, that could not be linked to another drug-related problem
  4. *,4Psychoanaleptics include antidepressants and anti-dementia drugs