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Table 5 Multivariate Multinomial Model: Adjusted Associations between Cognitive Participation Item and Demographic, Personal and Practice Variables

From: Assessing the implementation processes of a large-scale, multi-year quality improvement initiative: survey of health care providers

  I support the use of Lean in health care
Neutral Agree
Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value
Profession
 Nursing 1.0 1.0
 Health Care 2.53 (1.69, 3.98) 0.0001 4.11 (2.70, 7.20) 0.0001
Age group
  ≤ 30 years 1.0 1.0
 31–45 years 1.55 (0.84, 2.99) 0.37 1.82 (0.85, 3.98) 0.37
  > 45 years 1.99 (0.95, 4.49) 0.21 2.15 (0.87, 5.71) 0.32
Employment Status
 Full-Time 1.0 1.0
 Part-Time/Casual 1.07 (0.72, 1.57) 0.84 0.96 (0.59, 1.55) 0.94
Years of experience
 0–5 years 1.0 1.0
 6–10 years 0.71 (0.37, 1.30) 0.58 0.77 (0.35, 1.63) 0.72
 11–15 years 0.73 (0.36, 1.51) 0.21 0.79 (0.33, 1.82) 0.54
 15+ years 0.52 (0.24, 1.04) 0.49 0.66 (0.28, 1.54) 0.69
Primary Role
 Direct Care 1.0 1.0
 Leadership 2.05 (0.90, 4.67) 0.21 10.29 (5.65, 24.7) 0.0001
 Other 1.30 (0.61, 2.66) 0.60 1.46 (0.71, 3.06) 0.53
Practice Setting
 Acute 1.0 1.0
 Long-term Care 1.17 (0.66, 2.03) 0.72 2.44 (1.36, 4.68) 0.02
 Other 1.19 (0.77, 1.82) 0.60 1.09 (0.65, 1.82) 0.84
Location
 Urban 1.0 1.0
 Rural/Remote 1.29 (0.90, 1.88) 0.37 1.89 (1.25, 2.99) 0.02
Familiarity with Lean
 Complete 1.0 1.0
 Somewhat 1.20 (0.80, 1.85) 0.59 0.59 (0.36, 0.93) 0.08
Training
 None 0.92 (0.39, 2.54) 0.96 0.28 (0.09, 0.68) 0.05
 Kaizen Basics 0.73 (0.31, 1.85) 0.60 0.54 (0.22, 1.21) 0.37
 Leadership 0.92 (1.47, 4.15) 0.94 3.45 (1.24, 14.9) 0.08
Participation
 None (vs. any) 1.63 (0.83, 3.46) 0.94 0.72 (0.29, 1.70) 0.49
 Visibility wall 1.55 (0.98, 3.09) 0.96 1.31 (0.75, 2.57) 0.98
 5S 1.05 (0.68, 1.54) 0.21 1.00 (0.61, 1.63) 0.54
 RPIW 1.03 (0.66, 1.65) 0.37 1.33 (0.77, 2.26) 0.60
Impact of Lean on Workload
 No impact/Decreased 1.0 1.0
 Increased somewhat 0.61 (0.39, 0.96) 0.60 0.19 (0.11, 0.29) 0.08
 Increased substantially 0.26 (0.14, 0.41) 0.0001 0.05 (0.02, 0.09) 0.0001
First Exposure to Lean
 About 2 years ago 1.0    1.0   
 3 or more years ago 0.79 (0.53, 1.15) 0.40 0.76 (0.48, 1.17) 0.40