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Table 5 Total number of indicators, T1 (first assessment) and T2 (re-assessment) mean scores, percentage change, standard deviation and p values

From: If you can’t measure it- you can’t change it – a longitudinal study on improving quality of care in hospitals and health centers in rural Kenya

Domains Dimensions Number of indicators T1 (n = 10) ‡ T2 (n = 10) ‡ Average percentage change (difference T2-T1) ‡ of all relying indicators with available values at two times Standard deviation P-value
Clinical Care 86 62.66 72.73 10.08 24.12 0.0108
  1 Antenatal Care 13 53.69 80.54 26.84 27.29 0.0059
  2 Delivery 7 85.68 75.47 −10.21 24.41 0.3524
  3 Postnatal Care 6 72.05 67 −5.05 21.42 0.6259
  4 Family Planning 8 65.55 73.60 8.04 19.51 0.2818
  5 Survivors of gender-based violence 11 53.50 64.70 11.20 10.74 0.0092
Management 90 68.41 81.52 13.10 16.72 < 0.0001
  1 Leadership and governance 17 62.75 71.73 8.98 20.31 0.0971
  2 Financial 5 83.02 92.03 9.01 11.07 0.1431
  3 Maintenance 4 40.06 53.31 13.25 24.96 0.3662
  4 Supplies 7 68.63 94.8 26.17 20.36 0.0145
  5 Drugs 15 79.34 92.12 12.78 14.94 0.0051
  6 Data 5 65.86 80.90 14.94 11.17 0.0403
  7 Equipment 3 65.56 66.34 0.79 13.83 0.9303
  8 Amenities 23 65.13 77.92 12.79 13.70 0.0003
  9 Transport 2 77.5 95 17.5 17.68 0.3949
  10 Waiting times 9 72.99 88.86 15.87 19.05 0.0369
Interface In/out-patients 16 58.64 72.51 13.87 22.21 0.0246
  1 Community 2 69.41 95.66 26.26 13.37 0.2201
  2 General 3 84.90 78.25 −6.66 30.81 0.7442
  3 Referral 11 49.52 66.74 17.22 19.04 0.0133
Quality & Safety 67 51.13 71.15 20.02 18.51 < 0.0001
  1 General 1 35.71 21.43 57.14   
  2 Guidelines etc. 4 41.73 75.9 34.18 18.32 0.0336
  3 Critical incident reporting 7 34.92 50.04 15.12 19.44 0.0853
  4 Emergency management 4 43.73 54.75 11.03 14.95 0.2367
  5 Infection control 24 51.75 75.35 23.61 19.41 < 0.0001
  6 Laboratory 27 58.47 75.76 17.30 17.69 < 0.0001
Total 218 61.30 75.93 14.64 19.57 < 0.0001