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Table 4 Changes in Workplace Stress and Burnout After Redesigns in Each Phase (Separate Analyses, by Implementation Phase)

From: Experiences of primary care physicians and staff following lean workflow redesign

  Pilot (Phase 1) (N = 232) Betas (Phase 2) (N = 558) All Other Clinics (Phase 3) (N = 1000)
Experience Domains Parameter Estimatea (SD) Parameter Estimatea (SD) Parameter Estimatea (SD)
Perceptions of Work Environment
 Workplace stress 0.419*** (0.144) 0.332*** (0.090) 0.231*** (0.063)
Job-related Burnout
 Emotional exhaustion −0.016 (0.248) 0.476*** (0.164) 0.383*** (0.120)
 Depersonalization −0.016 (0.207) −0.230* (0.118) −0.117 (0.087)
 Personal accomplishment 0.417* (0.222) −0.308*** (0.095) −0.001 (0.086)
  1. Note: All models adjusted for respondent characteristics, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, department tenure, and clinic implementation phase
  2. SD, Standard Deviation
  3. aReference group: Baseline survey
  4. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001