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Table 2 Results of the negative binomial regression

From: Geographic variations in involuntary care and associations with the supply of health and social care: results from a nationwide study

Variable Estimated value of the coefficient Standard error 95% CI of the coefficient Exponentiated coefficient P-value
Lower bound Upper bound
Intercept −6.2746 1.1268 −8.4831 −4.0662   < 0.0001
Characteristics of the supply of health and social care
 Supply of public mental health care
  Characteristics of the hospital to which each sector was linked
   Private non-profit (vs. public) −0.1543 0.2249 − 0.5951 0.2864 0.8570 0.4926
   Participation to teaching activities (vs. no participation) −0.2567 0.1128 −0.4778 −0.0355 0.7736 0.0229
   Specialization in psychiatry (vs. general hospital) 0.1960 0.0841 0.0312 0.3607 1.2165 0.0197
   Participation to emergency care (vs. no participation) 0.1500 0.1241 −0.0933 0.3933 1.1618 0.2269
   Number of inpatient beds per 100,000 inhabitantsc − 0.0027 0.0029 − 0.0085 0.0030 0.9973 0.3525
 Supply of private mental health care (per 100,000 inhabitants)
  Number of community-based private psychiatristsb −0.0113 0.0065 −0.0239 0.0014 0.9888 0.0310
  Number of psychologists 0.0011 0.0010 −0.0008 0.0030 1.0011 0.2644
  Number of hospitalization beds of private psychiatrya 0.0011 0.0024 −0.0036 0.0058 1.0011 0.6544
 Supply of non-specialised care (per 100,000 inhabitants)
Number of general practitionersb 0.0047 0.0027 −0.0006 0.0099 1.0047 0.0499
Number of non-psychiatric hospitalization beds −0.0001 0.0001 −0.0003 0.0001 0.9999 0.3535
 Supply of social care (per 100,000 inhabitants)
  Number of beds in housing institutions for disabled individuals −0.0017 0.0007 −0.0020 0.0007 0.9983 0.0466
  Capacity of centres providing care through employment −0.0015 0.0008 −0.0030 0.0000 0.9985 0.0548
  Capacity of housing and social rehabilitation centres −0.0008 0.0010 −0.0026 0.0011 0.9992 0.4305
Epidemiological characteristics
 Psychiatric health status of the population
  Number of individuals suffering from chronic mental disorders (per 100,000 inhabitants)a 0.0000 0.0002 −0.0003 0.0003 1.0000 0.9719
  Percentage of deaths by suicide among total deaths −0.0193 0.0333 −0.0846 0.0460 0.9809 0.5623
  Acute admission rate for psychiatric disorders (per 100,000 inhabitants) 0.0127 0.0009 0.0109 0.0144 1.0128 < 0.0001
 Overall health status of the population (per 100,000 inhabitants)
  Acute admission rate for somatic disorders 0.0000 0.0000 −0.0001 −0.0000 1.0000 0.0041
  Mortality rate −0.0007 0.0010 −0.0027 0.0013 0.9993 0.4665
  Number of individuals suffering from chronic somatic disorders 0.0000 0.0000 −0.0001 0.0001 1.0000 0.9070
 Demographics of the population
  Number of women (per 100,000 inhabitants) 0.0000 0.0000 −0.0000 0.0001 1.0000 0.0566
  Mean age of individuals aged over 16 −0.0650 0.0187 −0.1017 −0.0284 0.9371 0.0005
 Socio-economic characteristics of the population
  Quintile of the mean deprivation index (FDep) (from lower to higher deprivation), reference: 5th quintile
   1 −0.2945 0.1606 −0.6092 0.0202 0.7449 0.0666
   2 −0.0920 0.1267 −0.3403 0.1564 0.9121 0.4679
   3 −0.0592 0.1242 −0.3027 0.1842 0.9425 0.6333
   4 −0.0864 0.1206 −0.3229 0.1500 0.9172 0.4737
Level of urbanisation
 Quantile of the level of urbanisation (from lower to higher urbanisation), reference: 6th quantile
  1 0.0701 0.1253 −0.1754 0.3156 1.0726 0.5758
  2 0.0423 0.1613 −0.2739 0.3585 1.0432 0.7933
  3 0.1125 0.3969 −0.6655 0.8904 1.1191 0.7769
  4 0.5827 0.5735 −0.5412 1.7067 1.7909 0.3095
  5 0.0099 0.1254 −0.2359 0.2557 1.0099 0.9373
  1. aand bSignificant correlations were observed between these variables. However, corresponding correlation coefficients were weak and there were strong hypotheses on associations of these variables with involuntary admission rates so they were all introduced in the model
  2. cThe number of inpatient beds per 100,000 inhabitants of the catchment area was highly correlated with the total number of full-time equivalents per 100,000 inhabitants allocated to psychiatric care by the hospital to which each sector was linked (ρ = 0.96; p < 0.0001). We therefore only introduced the number of beds in the model