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Table 2 Annual healthcare utilization and costs among patients with RSV and matched controls during the follow-up period

From: Healthcare resource use and economic burden attributable to respiratory syncytial virus in the United States: a claims database analysis

Resource category 1 year 2–4 years 5–17 years
RSV (n = 4078) Matched controls (n = 4078) p-value RSV (n = 3142) Matched controls (n = 3142) p-value RSV (n = 1290) Matched controls (n = 1290) p-value
Inpatient visit
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 521 (12.8) 89 (2.2) < 0.0001 392 (12.5) 47 (1.5) < 0.0001 123 (9.5) 23 (1.8) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 0.2 (0.6) 0 (0.2) < 0.0001 0.2 (0.6) 0 (0.4) < 0.0001 0.2 (0.8) 0 (0.2) < 0.0001
 Length of stay (days), mean (SD) 0.4 (2.1) 0 (0.7) < 0.0001 0.4 (2.1) 0.1 (1.9) < 0.0001 0.7 (4.3) 0 (0.5) < 0.0001
 Inpatient costs, mean (SD) $1625 ($11,249) $280 ($6376) < 0.0001 $2016 ($14,192) $379 ($11,230) < 0.0001 $4325 ($43,249) $470 ($7593) < 0.0001
ED/UC
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 1912 (46.9) 1079 (26.5) < 0.0001 1368 (43.5) 741 (23.6) < 0.0001 413 (32.0) 217 (16.8) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 0.5 (0.6) 0.3 (0.5) < 0.0001 0.5 (0.6) 0.2 (0.5) < 0.0001 0.4 (0.7) 0.2 (0.4) < 0.0001
 ED/UC costs, mean (SD) $789 ($1926) $298 ($915) < 0.0001 $712 ($1597) $273 ($1068) < 0.0001 $644 ($2040) $177 ($742) < 0.0001
Ambulatory visit
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 1784 (43.7) 954 (23.4) < 0.0001 1280 (40.7) 704 (22.4) < 0.0001 453 (35.1) 258 (20.0) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 1.3 (4.5) 0.6 (2.8) < 0.0001 1.5 (5.8) 0.7 (3.8) < 0.0001 1.7 (5.4) 0.5 (2.7) < 0.0001
 Ambulatory costs, mean (SD) $1270 ($5866) $557 ($3735) < 0.0001 $1425 ($6179) $693 ($6427) < 0.0001 $2107 ($10,423) $327 ($1733) < 0.0001
Outpatient visit
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 4065 (99.7) 3920 (96.1) < 0.0001 3126 (99.5) 2975 (94.7) < 0.0001 1280 (99.2) 1107 (85.8) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 11 (10.6) 6 (7.7) < 0.0001 10.1 (15.5) 5.4 (10.0) < 0.0001 11 (20.4) 4.8 (9.7) < 0.0001
 Outpatient costs, mean (SD) $1615 ($3480) $777 ($1278) < 0.0001 $1692 ($7748) $843 ($3224) < 0.0001 $2537 ($12,573) $713 ($3115) < 0.0001
Prescriptions filled
  ≥ 1 prescription, n (%) 3863 (94.7) 2943 (72.2) < 0.0001 2966 (94.4) 2227 (70.9) < 0.0001 1197 (92.8) 802 (62.2) < 0.0001
 No. of prescriptions, mean (SD) 5.8 (5.5) 2.7 (3.5) < 0.0001 6.0 (6.9) 2.6 (3.7) < 0.0001 7.2 (10.2) 2.9 (6.0) < 0.0001
 Prescription costs, mean (SD) $444 ($913) $158 ($408) < 0.0001 $708 ($3798) $193 ($875) < 0.0001 $1399 ($6765) $529 ($4253) < 0.0001
Total unadjusted costs,a mean (SD) $5742 ($17,282) $2069 ($9562) < 0.0001 $6553 ($22,881) $2380 ($18,909) < 0.0001 $11,013 ($60,208) $2216 ($10,908) < 0.0001
Resource category 18–49 years 50–64 years
RSV (n = 1226) Matched controls (n = 1226) p-value RSV (n = 894) Matched controls (n = 894) p-value
Inpatient visit
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 153 (12.5) 77 (6.3) < 0.0001 163 (18.2) 74 (8.3) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 0.2 (0.6) 0.1 (0.3) < 0.0001 0.3 (0.7) 0.1 (0.5) < 0.0001
 Length of stay (days), mean (SD) 0.6 (4.2) 0.2 (1.3) < 0.0001 1.1 (5.3) 0.3 (2.2) < 0.0001
 Inpatient costs, mean (SD) $3416 ($25,766) $1032 ($7111) < 0.0001 $5309 ($30,503) $2396 ($29,349) < 0.0001
ED/UC
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 461 (37.6) 241 (19.7) < 0.0001 325 (36.4) 154 (17.2) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 0.4 (0.6) 0.2 (0.4) < 0.0001 0.4 (0.7) 0.2 (0.5) < 0.0001
 ED/UC costs, mean (SD) $881 ($3634) $280 ($1041) < 0.0001 $1160 ($4940) $334 ($1420) < 0.0001
Ambulatory visits
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 600 (48.9) 450 (36.7) < 0.0001 591 (66.1) 528 (59.1) 0.0017
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 2.1 (6.0) 1.1 (2.5) < 0.0001 3.6 (7.1) 2.2 (4.8) < 0.0001
 Ambulatory costs, mean (SD) $2607 ($12,359) $1082 ($3910) < 0.0001 $4524 ($17,347) $2350 ($8518) < 0.0001
Outpatient visits
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 1212 (98.9) 1012 (82.5) < 0.0001 893 (99.9) 818 (91.5) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 12.3 (15.0) 6.8 (10.4) < 0.0001 17.8 (18.1) 9.9 (11.4) < 0.0001
 Outpatient costs, mean (SD) $2417 ($7599) $1223 ($5698) < 0.0001 $3455 ($6481) $1860 ($6240) < 0.0001
Prescriptions filled
  ≥ 1 prescription, n (%) 1148 (93.6) 930 (75.9) < 0.0001 859 (96.1) 766 (85.7) < 0.0001
 No. of prescriptions, mean (SD) 11.3 (13.1) 7 (8.8) < 0.0001 20.4 (17.5) 12.9 (13.9) < 0.0001
 Prescription costs, mean (SD) $1861 ($6837) $733 ($2239) < 0.0001 $3477 ($6789) $2231 ($6284) < 0.0001
Total unadjusted costsa, mean (SD) $11,182 ($42,469) $4350 ($11,749) < 0.0001 $17,925 (46,222) $9172 ($38,563) < 0.0001
Resource category 65–74 years 75–84 years ≥85 years
RSV (n = 294) Matched controls (n = 294) p-value RSV (n = 290) Matched controls (n = 290) p-value RSV (n = 218) Matched controls (n = 218) p-value
Inpatient visit
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 127 (43.2) 60 (20.4) < 0.0001 157 (54.1) 90 (31.0) < 0.0001 132 (60.6) 70 (32.1) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 0.8 (1.1) 0.3 (0.6) < 0.0001 1.1 (1.3) 0.5 (0.8) < 0.0001 1.0 (1.0) 0.5 (1.0) < 0.0001
 Length of stay (days), mean (SD) 3.4 (10.0) 0.5 (1.8) < 0.0001 4.2 (7.8) 1.2 (3.3) < 0.0001 3.6 (6.1) 1.7 (4.5) < 0.0001
 Inpatient costs, mean (SD) $8433 ($22,394) $1981 ($6785) < 0.0001 $16,286 ($69,695) $4903 ($17,511) < 0.0001 $7113 ($12,020) $4119 ($16,732) < 0.0001
ED/UC
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 140 (47.6) 73 (24.8) < 0.0001 171 (59.0) 107 (36.9) < 0.0001 142 (65.1) 84 (38.5) < 0.0001
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 0.7 (0.9) 0.3 (0.5) < 0.0001 1.0 (1.2) 0.5 (0.8) < 0.0001 1.0 (1.0) 0.6 (0.9) < 0.0001
 ED/UC costs, mean (SD) $916 ($4745) $257 ($885) < 0.0001 $1412 ($3404) $692 ($2126) < 0.0001 $1370 ($3687) $657 ($1790) 0.0006
Ambulatory visits
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 231 (78.6) 194 (66.0) 0.0007 238 (82.1) 201 (69.3) 0.0004 166 (76.1) 139 (63.8) 0.0046
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 6 (9.8) 3.8 (6.5) < 0.0001 6.6 (10.2) 3.9 (7.4) < 0.0001 5.2 (7.7) 4.5 (9.6) < 0.0001
 Ambulatory costs, mean (SD) $4257 ($15,648) $2660 ($6004) 0.0296 $5033 ($16,104) $4019 ($22,583) 0.0033 $5764 ($44,448) $1915 ($5273) 0.0093
Outpatient visits
  ≥ 1 visit, n (%) 293 (99.7) 277 (94.2) 0.0002 289 (99.7) 272 (93.8) < 0.0001 217 (99.5) 202 (92.7) 0.0003
 No. of visits, mean (SD) 25.1 (22.0) 13.0 (15.5) < 0.0001 35.3 (32.8) 17.2 (19.3) < 0.0001 35.7 (29.7) 17.1 (17.2) < 0.0001
 Outpatient costs, mean (SD) $6957 ($12,526) $2637 ($6586) < 0.0001 $16,627 ($52,729) $4842 ($12,823) < 0.0001 $13,002 ($17,381) $4604 ($9504) < 0.0001
Prescriptions filled
  ≥ 1 prescription, n (%) 282 (95.9) 268 (91.2) 0.0164 274 (94.5) 272 (93.8) 0.7237 200 (91.7) 199 (91.3) 0.8575
 No. of prescriptions, mean (SD) 27.0 (21.1) 17.0 (14.1) < 0.0001 31.2 (23.9) 21.7 (15.8) < 0.0001 38.2 (29.1) 23.6 (19.9) < 0.0001
 Prescription costs, mean (SD) $4866 ($7563) $2844 ($6288) < 0.0001 $4204 ($4644) $2955 ($6331) < 0.0001 $2958 ($2972) $2159 ($3690) < 0.0001
Total unadjusted costsa, mean (SD) $25,429 ($38,653) $10,379 ($16,103) < 0.0001 $43,562 ($99,939) $17,412 ($36,723) < 0.0001 $30,206 ($56,549) $13,454 ($23,848) < 0.0001
  1. ED: emergency department, RSV: respiratory syncytial virus, UC: urgent care
  2. Costs adjust to 2014 US dollars
  3. aTotal unadjusted costs are the sum of the costs from the individual resource categories