You are viewing the site in preview mode

Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the intervention patients and controls

From: Telemedical monitoring of patients with chronic heart failure has a positive effect on total health costs

Variable   Mean (SD) / N (%) Test statistics
Intervention group (N = 1943) Control group (N = 3719)
Sex Male 1052 (54.14%) 2014 (54.15%)
Female 891 (45.86%) 1705 (45.85%)  
Age groups 41–45 years 8 (0.41%) 15 (0.41%)
46–50 years 22 (1.13%) 42 (1.12%)  
51–55 years 46 (2.37%) 88 (2.36%)
56–60 years 69 (3.55%) 132 (3.54%)
61–65 years 127 (6.54%) 243 (6.52%)
66–70 years 305 (15.70%) 585 (15.72%)
71–75 years 426 (21.92%) 816 (21.93%)
76–80 years 441 (22.70%) 845 (22.73%)
81–85 years 314 (16.16%) 601 (16.16%)
86–90 years 159 (8.18%) 304 (8.18%)
91–95 years 26 (1.34%) 49 (1.33%)
Mean age [years] 74.44 (SD 8.97) 74.48 (SD 9.04) t = − 0.125, p = 0.9004
NYHA class NYHA I 19 (0.98%) 36 (0.98%)
NYHA II 614 (31.60%) 1175 (31.60%)  
NYHA III 779 (40.09%) 1491 (40.09%)
NYHA IV 531 (27.33%) 1016 (27.33%)
Hospital admissions All causes 2.54 (SD 1.73) 2.53 (SD 1.88) t = 0.090, p = 0.9283
(baseline year) Related to CHF 1.37 (SD 0,86) 1.37 (SD 0.86)
Emergency hospitalization (baseline year) All causes 0.65 (SD 1.27) 0.55 (SD 1.30) t = 2.752, p = 0.0059**
Total health costs [€] (quarterly mean in baseline year, SD) All regions 3747 (3007) 3750 (3021) t = −0.037, p = 0.9705
Urban 3723 (2900) 3959 (3503) t = −1.555, p = 0.1201
Rural 3820 (3313) 3677 (2829) t = 0.882, p = 0.3777
Health cost [€] (mean, SD) In-patient 2464 (2376) 2403 (2322) t = 0.896, p = 0.3702
Outpatient 296 (635) 294 (764) t = 0.126, p = 0.9000
Drugs 547 (788) 564 (751) t = − 0.752, p = 0.4523
Remedy 49 (131) 39 (126) t = 2.705, p = 0.0068**
Adjuvant 97 (213) 110 (226) t = −2.100, p = 0.0358*
Home health care 127 (525) 140.06 (426) t = −0.919, p = 0.3583
Travel costs 160 (271) 198 (304) t = −4.660, p < 0.0001***
Rehabilitation 7 (44) 3 (27) t = 3.738, p = 0.0002***
Medication (percentage “yes” per active agent in baseline quarter) Angiotensin-converting enzymes 845 (43.49%) 1637 (44.01%) Chi2 = 0.119, p = 0.7301
Beta-blockers 1261 (64.90%) 2340 (62.93%) Chi2 = 2.057, p = 0.1515
Renin-inhibitors 36 (1.85%) 51 (1.36%) Chi2 = 1.754, p = 0.1853
Cardiac glycosides 279 (14.36%) 548 (14.73%) Chi2 = 0.111, p = 0.7388
Diuretics 1298 (66.80%) 2507 (67.40%) Chi2 = 0.178, p = 0.6727
AT1 receptor blocker 385 (19.81%) 651 (17.51%) Chi2 = 4.397, p = 0.0360*
Mental and behavioral disorders Yes 743 (38.24%) 1421 (38.20%)
disorders (baseline quarter) No 1200 (61.76%) 2298 (61.80%)  
Residential Area Berlin 1461 (75.19%) 969 (26.06%) Chi2 = 1411.6, p < 0.0001***
  Brandenburg 436 (22.44%) 1482 (39.84%)  
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 27 (1.39%) 1235 (33.20%)  
Other 19 (0.98%) 34 (0.90%)  
Nursing care level of carea No care 1398 (71.95%) 2678 (72.02%) Chi2 = 20.932, p = 0.0001***
  Level 1 376 (19.35%) 615 (16.53%)  
Level 2 159 (8.18%) 370 (9.94%)  
Level 3 10 (0.51%) 56 (1.52%)  
Living in nursing home Yes 159 (8.18%) 498 (13.39%) Chi2 = 33.182, p < 0.0001***
No 1784 (91.82%) 3221 (86.61%)  
  1. aStandardized classification of the level of nursing care in Germany, Significance codes: ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05