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Table 1 Baseline variables for men and women with type 2 diabetes

From: Gender differences in the evaluation of care for patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study (ZODIAC-52)

Variables Men Women p-value
N 616 (56%) 486 (44%)  
Mean age 65.5 (±9.5) 63.9 (±10.5) 0.012
EUROPEP
 Median care provider score 4.4 (4.0 – 4.9) 4.5 (4.0 – 4.9) 0.063
 Median general practice score 4.2 (3.8 – 4.6) 4.2 (3.8 – 4.7) 0.832
Median WHO-5 sum score 76 (68 – 84) 72 (60 – 80) < 0.001
Median EQ-5D sum score 0.9 (0.8 – 1.0) 0.84 (0.78 – 1.00) < 0.001
Median EQ-VAS score 80 (70 – 90) 80 (61 – 88) 0.007
Median PAID-5 score 5 (0 – 15) 5 (0 – 20) 0.016
SDSCA items (median scores)
 General diet 6 (5 – 7) 6 (5 – 7) 0.171
 Fruit and vegetables 6 (5 – 7) 6 (5 – 7) < 0.001
 Less Fat 5 (4 – 6) 6 (5 – 6) < 0.001
 Exercise 4 (2.5 – 6.0) 4 (2.5 – 5.5) 0.728
 Foot-care 1 (0 – 3.5) 1.5 (0 – 3.5) 0.060
Level of education
 Low 179 (29.1%) 197 (40.5%) < 0.001
 Mediate 264 (42.9%) 220 (45.3%)
 High 173 (28.1%) 69 (14.2%)
Occupation
 Job 176 (28.6%) 116 (23.9%) < 0.001
 Retired 368 (59.7%) 206 (42.4%)
 Unemployed/ incapacitated 61 (9.9%) 38 (7.8%)
 Housewife/−man 11 (1.8%) 126 (25.9%)
Problems with DM self-care
 No 390 (63.3%) 313 (64.4%) 0.683
 A little 160 (26.0%) 131 (27.0%)
 Some 45 (7.3%) 26 (5.3%)
 Huge 21 (3.4%) 16 (3.3%)
Fall accidents 149 (24.2%) 144 (29.6%) 0.041
Vascular diseases in family 270 (43.8%) 249 (51.2%) 0.019
Contact with psychological caregivers 26 (4.2%) 41 (8.4%) 0.004
Worries about hypoglycemia
 No 457 (74.2%) 328 (67.5%) 0.052
 A little 98 (15.9%) 91 (18.7%)
 Huge 61 (9.9%) 67 (13.8%)
Smoking 110 (17.9%) 97 (20.0%) 0.371
Alcohol usage 409 (66.4%) 179 (36.8%) < 0.001
Median coffee usage 4 (3 – 6) 3 (2 – 4) < 0.001
Median tea usage 2 (0 – 3) 2 (1 – 4) < 0.001
Median BMI (kg/m2) 28.7 (26.2 – 31.5) 29.6 (26.8 – 33.5) < 0.001
Median diabetes duration (years) 6.8 (3.2 – 9.8) 6.8 (3.1 – 10.5) 0.436
Median HbA1c (mmol/mol) 49 (44 – 54) 48 (44 – 53) 0.605
Median systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136 (128 – 144) 132 (124 – 142) 0.009
Median diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 (70 – 84) 78 (70 – 82) 0.087
Median cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.1 (3.6 – 4.8) 4.5 (3.9 – 5.1) < 0.001
Median HDL (mmol/L) 1.1 (1.0 – 1.3) 1.4 (1.2 – 1.6) < 0.001
Median LDL (mmol/L) 2.3 (1.8 – 2.8) 2.4 (1.9 – 3.0) 0.003
Median creatinine (μmol/L) 85 (75 – 96) 68 (61 – 78) < 0.001
Microvascular complications 245 (39.8%) 122 (25.1%) < 0.001
Macrovascular complications 226 (36.7%) 107 (22.0%) < 0.001
Diet 105 (17.0%) 101 (20.8%) 0.114
Oral medication 426 (69.2%) 313 (64.4%) 0.096
Insulin use 85 (13.8%) 72 (14.8%) 0.632
Use of antihypertensive drugs 462 (75.0%) 361 (74.3%) 0.785
Use of lipid lowering drugs 499 (81.0%) 361 (74.3%) 0.007
  1. Values are depicted as number (%), means (± SD), or median (IQR)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein