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Table 1 Univariate and Bivariate Distribution of study variables

From: Predictors of person-centered maternity care: the role of socioeconomic status, empowerment, and facility type

  Univariate Bivariate statistics: PCMC scores by predictors
Crosstabs OLS regression
No. % Mean SD Coeff. CI
Total N 877 100.0 59.0 14.0    
Age
 15 to 19 years 162 18.5 57.1 14.5 0.0 [0 0]
 20 to 29 years 511 58.3 59.4 14.0 2.3 [−0.17 4.78]
 30 to 48 years 204 23.3 59.2 13.5 2.1 [−0.84 4.94]
Marital status
 Single 140 16.0 56.4 14.6 0.0 [0 0]
 Partnered/Cohabiting 3 0.3 55.3 13.3 −1.1 [−17.0 14.9]
 Married 687 78.3 59.7 13.8 3.3* [0.76 5.84]
 Widowed 35 4.0 55.4 15.3 −1.0 [−6.14 4.22]
 Divorced/Separated 12 1.4 58.1 14.0 1.7 [−6.55 9.94]
Number of births
 1.0 290 33.1 58.6 14.9 0.0 [0 0]
 2.0 185 21.1 60.1 14.1 1.6 [−1.02 4.15]
3.0 163 18.6 60.0 12.7 1.4 [−1.27 4.10]
4 or more 239 27.3 57.8 13.6 −0.8 [−3.18 1.62]
Education
 No school/Primary 495 56.4 58.1 14.1 0.0 [0 0]
 Post-primary/Vocational/Secondary 271 30.9 59.2 13.9 1.1 [−0.94 3.20]
 College or above 111 12.7 62.1 13.2 4.0** [1.12 6.87]
Literacy: writing
 No, cannot write 31 3.5 53.5 14.7 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes, with some difficulty 141 16.1 57.6 13.0 4.1 [−1.32 9.55]
 Yes, very well 705 80.4 59.5 14.1 6.0* [0.99 11.0]
Literacy: reading
 No, cannot read 37 4.2 53.6 13.2 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes, with some difficulty 129 14.7 57.9 13.1 4.3 [−0.79 9.44]
 Yes, very well 711 81.1 59.4 14.2 5.8* [1.17 10.4]
Employed
 No 658 75.0 57.4 13.6 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes 219 25.0 63.7 14.1 6.4*** [4.29 8.50]
Work or relation in health facility
 No 819 93.4 58.8 14.0 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes 58 6.6 61.3 14.3 2.5 [−1.19 6.28]
Wealth Quintile
 Poorest 190 21.7 56.4 14.1 0.0 [0 0]
 Poorer 190 21.7 57.8 13.5 1.4 [−1.44 4.16]
 Middle 135 15.4 58.6 14.5 2.2 [−0.92 5.23]
 Richer 172 19.6 61.7 13.4 5.3*** [2.42 8.17]
 Richest 190 21.7 60.4 14.1 3.9** [1.13 6.73]
Wealth Quintile
 Poorest 380 43.3 57.1 13.8 0.0 [0 0]
 Middle 135 15.4 58.6 14.5 1.5 [−1.26 4.21]
 Richest 362 41.3 61.0 13.8 3.9*** [1.89 5.90]
Occupation
 Agricultural labor 135 15.4 57.1 14.2 0.0 [0 0]
 Casual labor 57 6.5 55.3 15.2 −1.9 [−6.17 2.46]
 Salaried worker 92 10.5 61.5 12.4 4.4* [0.71 8.10]
 Self-employed in petty trade 166 18.9 61.3 13.5 4.2** [1.05 7.39]
 Self-employed small scale industry 25 2.9 61.5 13.0 4.4 [−1.55 10.4]
 Unemployed/homemaker 391 44.6 58.4 14.2 1.2 [−1.49 3.97]
 Other 11 1.3 58.4 12.2 1.3 [−7.32 9.81]
Partner’s occupation
 Agricultural labor 173 19.7 58.9 14.3 0.0 [0 0]
 Casual labor 152 17.4 56.8 12.4 −2.2 [−5.19 0.81]
 Salaried worker 148 16.9 61.9 13.7 3.0 [−0.057 5.98]
 Self-employed in petty trade 119 13.6 63.7 12.8 4.8** [1.55 7.98]
 Self-employed small scale industry 74 8.4 55.4 14.2 −3.6 [−7.30 0.20]
 Unemployed/homemaker 20 2.3 64.8 12.4 5.8 [−0.56 12.2]
 Other 3 0.3 52.7 20.1 −6.3 [−22.0 9.43]
 No partner 187 21.3 56.3 14.6 −2.6 [−5.47 0.22]
Partner’s education
 No school/Primary 308 35.9 58.9 13.8 0.0 [0 0]
 Post-primary/Vocational/Secondary 225 26.2 59.1 13.8 0.1 [−2.24 2.53]
 College or above 139 16.2 62.8 12.9 3.9** [1.08 6.63]
 No partner 187 21.8 56.3 14.6 −2.6* [−5.11 −0.074]
Health Insurance
 No 722 82.3 57.8 13.9 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes 155 17.7 64.1 13.3 6.3*** [3.87 8.67]
Participation in household decisions
 Low participation 440 50.2 58.3 14.7 0.0 [0 0]
 High participation 437 49.8 59.6 13.2 1.3 [−0.61 3.10]
Attitude towards domestic violence
 DM tolerant 395 45.0 58.4 13.1 0.0 [0 0]
 DM Intolerant 482 55.0 59.4 14.7 1.0 [−0.86 2.87]
Experience domestic violence
 No 429 48.9 61.5 14.3 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes 448 51.1 56.5 13.2 −5.0*** [−6.84 −3.18]
Delivery facility type
 Public hospital 404 46.1 57.2 13.9 0.0 [0 0]
 Health Center 362 41.3 59.3 13.7 2.1* [0.13 4.07]
 Mission/Private facility 111 12.7 63.9 14.1 6.7*** [3.80 9.62]
Delivery provider
 Nurse/Midwife 656 74.8 58.7 14.0 0.0 [0 0]
 Doctor 83 9.5 61.9 14.7 3.2* [0.051 6.43]
 Clinical officer 54 6.2 54.9 11.6 −3.9 [−7.72 0.031]
 Non-skilled attendant 21 2.4 62.4 12.9 3.7 [−2.39 9.75]
 1plus skilled providers 63 7.2 60.0 14.2 1.3 [−2.28 4.95]
Delivery provider sex
 Male 329 37.5 59.1 13.5 0.0 [0 0]
 Female 514 58.6 58.4 14.1 −0.7 [−2.61 1.26]
 Both 34 3.9 66.1 14.8 7.0** [2.08 11.9]
Pregnancy complications
 No 494 56.3 58.2 14.0 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes 383 43.7 60.0 13.9 1.8 [−0.087 3.65]
Severe pregnancy complication
 No 616 70.2 58.3 13.9 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes 261 29.8 60.5 14.1 2.3* [0.22 4.28]
Past facility delivery
 No 342 39.0 58.1 14.6 0.0 [0 0]
 Yes 535 61.0 59.5 13.6 1.5 [−0.46 3.35]
Trimester of first ANC
 First trimester 261 29.8 59.1 13.8 0.0 [0 0]
 Second trimester 536 61.3 59.0 14.2 −0.2 [−2.23 1.92]
 Third trimester 72 8.2 58.5 13.4 −0.6 [−4.28 3.04]
 No ANC 6 0.7 51.3 15.6 −7.8 [−19.1 3.56]
Number of ANC visits
 No ANC 6 0.7 51.3 15.6 −6.9 [− 18.2 4.41]
 Less than 4 281 32.2 58.2 14.0 0.0 [0 0]
 4 or 5 485 55.6 59.4 14.1 1.2 [−0.85 3.26]
 6 plus 100 11.5 59.3 13.3 1.1 [−2.10 4.29]
Tribe
 Luo 584 66.6 58.0 12.8 0.0 [0 0]
 Kuria 208 23.7 61.8 16.3 3.8*** [1.63 6.04]
 Other 85 9.7 58.6 15.1 0.6 [−2.61 3.74]
Religion
 Catholic 242 27.6 58.6 14.2 0.0 [0 0]
 Protestant/Pentecostal 191 21.8 59.1 14.8 0.5 [−2.17 3.16]
 Seventh Day Adventist 263 30.0 59.6 14.5 1.0 [−1.45 3.45]
 Other Christian 166 18.9 58.6 11.8 0.0 [−2.77 2.77]
 Muslim/other religion 15 1.7 55.1 15.1 −3.5 [−10.8 3.85]
Postpartum length
 Less than 1 week 75 8.6 66.1 15.1 0.0 [0 0]
 1 week or more 802 91.4 58.3 13.7 −7.8*** [− 11.1 −4.50]
Postpartum length
 less than 5 weeks 426 48.6 60.1 14.7 0.0 [0 0]
 5 weeks or more 451 51.4 57.9 13.2 −2.1* [−4.00 − 0.29]
Place of Interview
 Health facility 356 40.6 60.7 14.2 0.0 [0 0]
 In the community/a home 521 59.4 57.7 13.8 −3.0** [−4.86 −1.10]
  1. CI = 95% confidence intervals: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001