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Table 5 Determinant of Health Insurance Enrolment

From: Differences in the determinants of health insurance enrolment among working-age adults in two regions in Ghana

   Adjusted Odds Ratio
   Total Sample Urban Sample Rural Sample
Independent Variables GAR WR GAR WR GAR WR
Sex Males 0.66*** (0.53–0.82) 0.52*** (0.44–0.63) 0.74** (0.57–0.97) 0.49*** (0.36–0.67) 0.46*** (0.34–0.64) 0.55*** (0.42–0.71)
Age   1.02*** (1.01–1.03) 1.03*** (1.02–1.04) 1.01** (1.01–1.03) 1.04*** (1.02–1.05) 1.01* (0.99–1.04) 1.02*** (1.01–1.04)
Marital Status Married 1.28 (0.93–1.76) 1.14 (0.84–1.56) 1.14 (0.82–1.58) 0.86 (0.59–1.26) 1.60 (0.76–3.38) 1.29 (0.77–2.13)
  Divorced 1.11 (0.71–1.74) 0.66* (0.44–0.99) 0.96 (0.60–1.52) 0.42** (0.21–0.85) 1.22 (0.41–3.62) 0.73 (0.45–1.20)
Religion Christian 1.08 (0.67–1.77) 1.10 (0.78–1.56) 1.20 (0.67–2.13) 1.08 (0.70–1.67) 0.68 (0.29–1.58) 1.05 (0.63–1.76)
Household Size   1.04 (0.98–1.10) 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 1.15* (0.99–1.31) 1.03 (0.93–1.16) 1.04 (0.92–1.18)
Educational Level Basic Education 0.89 (0.63–1.28) 1.18 (0.89–1.57) 0.93 (0.50–1.72) 1.87* (1.06–3.31) 0.89 (0.59–1.34) 0.99 (0.75–1.32)
  Secondary Edu. & Above 1.49* (1.00–2.21) 1.61* (1.06–2.44) 1.37 (0.75–2.52) 1.95 (0.87–4.39) 2.07*** (1.33–3.22) 1.67* (1.05–2.66)
Employment Employed 0.82 (0.61–1.11) 0.79 (0.61–1.03) 0.79 (0.55–1.13) 0.84 (0.52–1.39) 0.85 (0.49–1.47) 0.79 (0.55–1.14)
Health Status Fair Health 0.84 (0.53–1.34) 0.63 (0.26–1.53) 0.85 (0.45–1.62) 0.08 (0.01–0.72) 1.10 (0.60–2.02) 0.87 (0.35–2.19)
  Good Health 0.60* (0.39–0.96) 0.54 (0.22–1.34) 0.58 (0.32–1.08) 0.06 (0.01–0.59) 0.82 (0.33–2.03) 0.80 (0.33–1.95)
Wealth Status Poor 0.91 (0.49–1.67) 1.47 (0.88–2.46) 0.67 (0.29–1.54) 2.54* (0.99–6.52) 0.98 (0.38–2.55) 1.07 (0.57–2.03)
  Average 1.11 (0.60–2.04) 1.43 (0.90–2.26) 0.66 (0.28–1.58) 1.49 (0.56–3.97) 1.75 (0.75–4.13) 1.25 (0.72–2.17)
  Rich 1.35 (0.72–2.50) 1.77* (1.04–3.02) 1.16 (0.47–2.86) 2.68 (0.84–8.49) 1.04 (0.45–2.42) 1.26 (0.68–2.34)
  Richest 1.73* (0.97–3.10) 2.04** (1.26–3.28) 1.13 (0.49–2.63) 2.59 (0.93–7.22) 2.55** (1.16–5.59) 1.76* (1.04–2.98)
Travel time to Facility 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.99 (0.99–1.01 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.98** (0.97–0.99)
Ownership of Facility Public 1.83*** (1.55–2.16) 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 1.78*** (1.39–2.26) 0.95 (0.82–1.11) 0.48*** (0.31–0.73) 0.31*** (0.26–0.37)
Constant   0.14*** (0.06–0.33) 0.34* (0.11–0.04) 0.17*** (0.05–0.59) 1.08 (0.14–8.65) 0.366 (0.09–1.58) 0.42 (0.11–1.59)
Pseudo R-squared   0.086 0.079 0.075 0.102 0.135 0.086
No. of Observation   2132 1946 1336 736 735 1167
  1. Source: COHEiSION Project Baseline Survey of 2012. Note: Adjusted odds ratio are reported with reference categories: Age (1 year increase in age); Sex (Female); Marital status (Never Married); Religion (Other Religion); Household size (Increase of 1 person); Educational level (No Formal Education); Employment (Unemployed); Health Status (Poor Health Status); Wealth status (Poorest); Travel time (1 min increase in travel time); Facility ownership (Private); Missing values are excluded from the analyses. Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001