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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of included variables, from 2001 to 2014

From: Regional variation in health care utilization in Sweden – the importance of demand-side factors

  Mean Min Max St.dev. Overall St.dev. Between St.dev. Within
Health care utilization
 Visits to primary physician (per capita) 1.37 0.99 2.02 0.17 0.16 0.08
 Visits to specialist (per capita) 1.21 0.86 2.28 0.23 0.21 0.09
Mortality
 Mortality rate (per 100,000) 963.34 767.34 1155.01 77.94 48.59 61.80
Demography
 Women (%) 50.12 49.02 51.03 0.37 0.35 0.16
 65–79 years (%) 13.74 9.58 17.93 1.73 1.31 1.16
 80 years or older (%) 5.65 3.88 6.51 0.57 0.57 0.15
 Foreign born (%) 10.86 3.88 23.43 4.12 3.89 1.59
Socio-economic structure
 Education lower (% with only primary educ.) 23.76 15.33 32.40 3.54 2.37 2.68
 Education intermed. (% with secondary educ. at highest) 46.96 37.71 52.66 3.04 3.06 0.55
 Education higher (% with some type of tertiary educ.) 27.75 19.60 43.48 4.81 4.33 2.29
 GRP/capita (SEK 1000)a 328.92 241.79 571.00 52.76 48.59 22.96
 Financial assistance (SEK 1000)a 1.02 0.45 1.82 0.27 0.24 0.13
 Unemployment (%) 6.89 2.47 11.00 1.89 0.89 1.68
Supply
 Primary care centers (per 100,000) 13.14 7.81 22.76 3.05 2.92 1.06
 Non-public primary care (%) 25.31 0.00 67.31 17.03 14.65 9.21
 Density of physicians (per 1000) 2.95 2.21 4.27 0.41 0.33 0.24
Copayments
 Copayment primary (SEK)a 147.01 99.77 209.69 26.03 18.90 18.33
 Copayment specialist (SEK)a 284.15 199.64 350.00 36.41 25.62 26.42
  1. aPrices in 2014 price level, 1 SEK ≈ €0.10