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Table 5 Multiple logistic regression analysis: relative influence of demand- and supply-side factors on the likelihood of incurring excessive out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPs) for outpatient care

From: Assessing out-of-pocket expenditures for primary health care: how responsive is the Democratic Republic of Congo health system to providing financial risk protection?

Determinant Adjusted OR SE p-value
Poorest (vs. Wealthiest) 0.37 0.16 0.023*
 Poorer 0.44 0.16 0.022*
 Middle 0.46 0.16 0.031*
 Wealthier 0.49 0.14 0.012*
Highest education of hh head: Primary (vs. None) 1.45 0.80 0.500ns
 Secondary 1.63 0.75 0.291ns
 Tertiary 1.03 0.68 0.963ns
Owns a transportation mean 0.43 0.12 0.002*
Large household size (≥6) 1.77 0.50 0.042*
Days lost: Less than a week (vs. Zero) 1.27 0.40 0.441ns
 Days lost: A week to less than a month 1.56 0.48 0.152ns
 Days lost: One month or above 3.97 0.19 0.005*
Private sector (vs. Public sector) 4.93 8.36 0.348ns
 Informal sector 2.50 4.18 0.584ns
Total number of paid visits 0.91 0.14 0.570ns
Share of OOPs on drugs 0.21 0.12 0.007*
Equateur (vs. Maniema/Orientale) 0.23 0.09 0.000***
 Kasai Occidental/Oriental 0.37 0.14 0.011*
Male (vs. Female) 1.28 0.24 0.177ns
Head of household 0.85 0.38 0.722ns
Under 5 years old 0.58 0.11 0.003*
50+ years old 1.16 0.38 0.658ns
HF has functional X-ray 3.03 1.92 0.081ns
HF has functional ultrasound 3.84 1.98 0.010ns
HF has functional microscopes 1.13 0.43 0.747ns
HF has functional sterilisers 1.12 0.42 0.770ns
HF has functional centrifuges 0.35 0.16 0.021*
HF avg. price for care services 1.01 0.00 0.085ns
Long travel time (30+ min) 1.47 0.55 0.304ns
HF level 1: Health center 8.82 14.29 0.181ns
HF at Operational level 2 (Hôpital Général de Référence) 50.59 77.19 0.011*
Lowest dissatifaction (index score 1) (vs. No dissatisfaction) 1.98 0.73 0.063ns
 Dissatisfaction index score 2 1.90 0.66 0.063ns
 Dissatisfaction index score 3 1.98 0.78 0.082ns
 Dissatisfaction index score 4 2.90 1.22 0.013*
 Highest dissatifaction (index score 5) 2.52 1.37 0.090ns
Constant 0.24 0.49 0.485ns
  1. Statistical significance of *: 0.01 ≤ p < 0.05; **: 0.001 ≤ p < 0.01; ***: p < 0.001; ns: p ≥ 0.05;
  2. HF health facility