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Table 1 Definition of outcome measures

From: Effects of a price cut reform on the cost and utilization of antidiabetic drugs in Korea: a national health insurance database study

Outcomes Measures Definition
Primary outcomes Pharmaceutical costa (total) • Monthly cost of antidiabetics
Pharmaceutical utilization (total) • Monthly DDDs of antidiabetics
• Monthly number of patients with at least one antidiabetics
Secondary outcomes Pharmaceutical costa (per patient) • Monthly cost per patient with antidiabetics
Pharmaceutical utilization (per patient) • Monthly DDDs per patient with antidiabetics
Incidents of medical and surgical procedures relating to diabetic complications Diabetic retinopathy including 3 procedures (panretinal photocoagulation, and vitrectomy)
Diabetic cataract including 4 procedures (extracapsular or intracapsular extraction, pars plana lensectomy, phacoemulsification, and surgery after cataract)
Diabetic nephropathy including 20 procedures (e.g., AV shunt, fistula formation or various intravenous catheter insertions for hemodialysis, kidney transplant)
Cardiovascular complications of diabetics including 15 procedures (e.g., percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting)
Diabetic foot lesions including 31 procedures (e.g., limb amputation, atherectomy)
  1. aCost in Korean won, KRW (1 US dollar 1000 KRW); DDD = defined daily dose (In the case of pharmaceutical items without DDD information, for example, combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs (A10BD), we divided the total quantity consumed by the standard daily dosage designated for adults in the Korean official labels to compute total DDDs for that item)