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Table 1 Intervention functions that are appropriate to target underlying theoretical domains

From: Improving medication adherence in stroke survivors: the intervention development process

TDF Domain Intervention Function Intervention Function Definitionsa Included/excluded from next stage Reasons for Inclusion/exclusion (against APEASE criteria)
Knowledge Education Increasing knowledge or understanding Included Considered affordable, practical, potentially effective, potentially acceptable, should have limited side effects and shouldn’t create significant issues of equity
Training Imparting skills Included Considered affordable, practical, potentially effective, potentially acceptable, should have limited side effects and shouldn’t create significant issues of equity
Enablement Increasing means/reducing barriers to increase capability (beyond education/ training) or opportunity (beyond environmental restructuring) Included Considered affordable, practical, potentially effective, potentially acceptable, should have limited side effects and shouldn’t create significant issues of equity
Beliefs about consequences Education Increasing knowledge or understanding Included Considered affordable, practical, potentially effective, potentially acceptable, should have limited side effects and shouldn’t create significant issues of equity
Persuasion Using communication to induce positive or negative feelings or stimulate action Included Considered affordable, practical, potentially effective, potentially acceptable, should have limited side effects and shouldn’t create significant issues of equity
Incentivisation Creating an expectation of reward Excluded Not considered affordable, unlikely to be acceptable to policy makers and would possibly be impractical to incentivise over a sustained period of time
Coercion Creating an expectation of punishment or cost Excluded Not considered practical to deliver (as HCPs often want to maintain good and balanced relationships with patients), unlikely to be acceptable to HCPs or patients morally and ethically, enforcing punishment or cost onto patients will also likely have unwanted side effects, and could reduce equity for some sectors of the community
Emotions Persuasion Using communication to induce positive or negative feelings or stimulate action Included Considered affordable, practical, potentially effective, potentially acceptable, should have limited side effects and shouldn’t create significant issues of equity
Incentivisation Creating an expectation of reward Excluded Not considered affordable, unlikely to be acceptable to policy makers and would possible be impractical to incentivise over a sustained period of time
Coercion Creating an expectation of punishment or cost Excluded Not considered practical to deliver (as HCPs often want to maintain good and balanced relationships with patients), unlikely to be acceptable to HCPs or patients morally and ethically, enforcing punishment or cost onto patients will also likely have unwanted side effects, and could reduce equity for some sectors of the community
Restriction Using rules to reduce the opportunity to engage in the target behaviour (or to increase target behaviour by reducing the opportunity to engage in the competing behaviour) Excluded Not considered practical to deliver as medicine taking can be carried out alone and so there will be no one present to enforce rules, unlikely to be acceptable to patients, HCPs or policy makers as rules often require legislation changes to be enforceable and acted upon
Environmental Restructuring Changing the physical or social context Included Considered affordable, practical, potentially effective, potentially acceptable, should have limited side effects and shouldn’t create significant issues of equity unless patients do not have access to similar healthcare services or possess similar abilities
Modelling Providing an example for people to aspire to or imitate Excluded Not considered to be practical to deliver as patients do not always have contact with HCPs or other patients when collecting prescriptions for medications, could potentially create disparities in equity
Enablement Increasing means/reducing barriers to increase capability (beyond education/ training) or opportunity (beyond environmental restructuring) Included Considered affordable, practical, potentially effective, potentially acceptable, should have limited side effects and shouldn’t create significant issues of equity
  1. APEASE Affordability, practicality, effectiveness/cost-effectiveness, acceptability, side effects, equity, HCPs Healthcare Professionals, TDF Theoretical Domains Framework
  2. aDefinitions from Michie, S., L. Atkins, and R. West, The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions. 2014, UK: Silverback Publishing