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Table 4 Means, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence interval (CI) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients measured by the HSOPSC

From: Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the hospital survey on patient safety culture in a prehospital environment

Measurement concepts Number of items Mean (SD) 95% CI Alpha
This study Originala Other N studiesb
Outcome measures – single item
 Patient safety grade 1 3.59 (.69) 3.55 to 3.63    
 Number of events reported (last 12 months) 1 1.87 (.89) 1.82 to 1.92    
Outcome dimensions
 Overall perception of safety 4 3.73 (.76) 3.68 to 3.77 .76 .74 .49-.78
 Frequency of error reporting 3 2.82 (.79) 2.77 to 2.86 .80 .84 .75-.83
 Stop working in dangerous situations 4 4.06 (.57) 4.02 to 4.09 .77   .63
Safety climate dimensions – unit level
 Manager expectations & actions promoting patient safety 4 3.79 (.81) 3.74 to 3.83 .83 .75 .71-.85
 Organizational learning - continuous improvement 3 3.36 (.74) 3.31 to 3.40 .69 .76 .51-.64
 Teamwork within units 4 4.03 (.65) 3.99 to 4.07 .78 .83 .74-.77
 Communication openness 3 3.54 (.75) 3.49 to 3.58 .75 .72 .61-.68
 Feedback and communication about error 3 3.19 (.81) 3.14 to 3.24 .79 .78 .69-.76
 Nonpunitive response to error 3 3.44 (.92) 3.38 to 3.49 .81 .79 .60-.67
 Staffing 4 3.59 (.75) 3.55 to 3.64 .65 .63 .56-.68
Safety climate dimensions – system level
 Hospital management support for patient safety 3 3.03 (.80) 2.98 to 3.07 .79 .83 .76-.80
 Teamwork across units 4 3.64 (.56) 3.61 to 3.68 .64 .80 .65-.73
 Handoffs and transitions 4 3.40 (.66) 3.36 to 3.44 .78 .80 .62-.68
Median alpha     .76 .78 .64-.74
  1. Notes The mean score of each of the items belonging to the dimension is calculated, and the mean of these is then taken to give the mean score for the dimension. aRetrieved from [43] bNorwegian studies: [34, 37, 38, 55]