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Table 2 Characteristics of 7921 respondents included in the study

From: The effect of cost-sharing design characteristics on use of health care recommended by the treating physician; a discrete choice experiment

   Total Forgoing health care (n = 1048) Utilizing health care (n = 6873)
Demographics
 Age (in years)** Mean (sd) 62.3 (11.1) 57.8 (10.9) 63.0 (11.0)
 Gender (%)** Men 47.9 39.4 49.2
Socio-economic status
 Education level (%)** Low 24.9 27.5 24.6
Moderate 32.0 35.6 31.4
High 43.1 36.9 44.0
 Monthly net income (%)** < €1000 8.4 19.5 6.7
€1001–€2000 30.9 43.4 29.0
€2001–€3000 24.4 15.7 25.7
€3001–€4000 12.1 5.0 13.2
>€4000€ 6.7 2.1 7.4
Unknown or not-disclosed 17.5 14.3 18.0
 Financial situation (%)** Running up debts or 6.7 20.4 4.7
Using savings 16.6 24.3 15.4
Precisely enough to live from 33.7 36.5 33.2
Saving a small amount 37.0 16.5 40.2
Saving a large amount 6.0 2.3 6.5
Health
 Subjective health (%)** Very poor 2.8 3.6 2.7
Poor 16.1 18.1 15.7
Moderate 41.7 46.2 41.1
Good 35.3 27.8 36.4
Very good 4.1 4.3 4.1
 Chronic conditions (%)* One or more 84.0 81.6 84.3
 Health Status, EQ-5D-5 L** Mean (sd) .76 (.20) .71 (.23) .77 (.20)
 Sense of mastery, Pearlin ** Mean (sd) 22.3 (5.8) 20.5 (5.9) 22.6 (5.7)
Respondents per health service
 Number (% of group)+ Medication   475 (45.3%) 6277 (91.3%)
Diagnostic tests   738 (70.4%) 5510 (80.2%)
Specialist care   662 (63.2%) 4702 (68.4%)
  1. Respondents were classified as divided in two groups; respondents reported having forgone health care due to deductibles (group: forgoing health care) and those did not (group: utilizing health care). Health status was measured by the Euroqol-5D-5 L questionnaire and valued according to Dutch tariffs. Scores range from 0 (a health status equal to death) to 1 (a health status equal to perfect health). The sense of mastery was measured by the Pearlin Mastery Scale Test. Seven statements (e.g. “I have little control of events that happen to me”) are scored on a five point Likert scale. Summed scores range from the lowest possible score of 7 (lacking sense of mastery) to the highest possible score of 35 (complete sense of mastery) [21]
  2. ** p-value ≤.01, * p-value ≤.05, +as percentage of group forgoing health care (n = 1048) and utilizing health care (n = 6873) respectively, sd: standard deviation