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Table 3 Results from mixed multinomial logits (prescribed medication)

From: The effect of cost-sharing design characteristics on use of health care recommended by the treating physician; a discrete choice experiment

Health Service: Prescribed medication
Group: Forgoing health care Utilizing health care
Weighting: Unweighted Inverse Probability Weighting Unweighted Inverse Probability Weighting
Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE)
Variable:
 Type of payments
  -Copayments 1.224 (0.095)** 1.103 (0.428)* 1.768 (0.060)** 1.834 (0.237)**
  -Coinsurances (reference) −1.224 (0.095)** −1.103 (0.428)* − 1.768 (0.060)** − 1.834 (0.237)**
 Rate of payments
  -Rate1 a 0.696 (0.075)** 0.994 (0.285)** 0.783 (0.033)** 0.901 (0.111)**
  -Rate2 a 0.257 (0.065)** 0.471 (0.272) 0.502 (0.027)** 0.500 (0.089)**
  -Rate3 a (reference) −0.953 (0.128)** −1.466 (0.547)** −1.285 (0.042)** − 1.401 (0.150)**
 Annual caps on cost-sharing payment
  -Half cap 0.015 (0.052) 0.180 (0.170) −0.025 (0.023) − 0.002 (0.055)
  -Full cap (reference) −0.015 (0.052) −0.180 (0.170) 0.025 (0.023) 0.002 (0.055)
  -Half cap * Copayments −0.020 (0.049 0.030 (0.102) −0.022 (0.017) −0.041 (0.053)
  -Half cap * Rate1 a − 0.164 (0.065) 0.072 (0.285) − 0.053 (0.030) −0.199 (0.088)*
  -Half cap * Rate2 a 0.040 (0.068) −0.568 (0.408) − 0.093 (0.036)* 0.070 (0.129)
  -Half cap * Afterwards billed by health insurer 0.054 (0.048) −0.119 (0.191) 0.041 (0.018)* 0.077 (0.070)
 Moment of payment
  -Afterwards billed by health insurer 0.082 (0.045) 0.843 (0.254)** 1.590 (0.065)** 0.793 (0.198)**
  -Directly at point of care (reference) −0.082 (0.045) −0.843 (0.254)** −1.590 (0.065)** − 0.793 (0.198)**
 Alternative specific constant
  -Opt-out option 2.308 (0.073)* 2.640 (0.605)** −0.332 (0.030)** −1.093 (0.187)**
 SD of random parameters
  Copayments 1.667 (0.094)** 1.733 (0.552)** 2.884 (0.080)** 2.650 (0.280)**
  Rate1 a 0.765 (0.108)** 1.036 (0.471)* 1.064 (0.044)** 1.146 (0.152)**
  Rate2 a 0.003 (0.247) 0.001 (0.005) 0.815 (0.042)** −0.746 (0.149)**
  Afterwards billed by health insurer 3.692 (0.100)** 3.633 (0.409)**
Model
 Number of individuals 475 475 6277 6277
 Number of observations 8550 8550 112,986 112,986
 Log-likelihood − 2082.340 − 1327.649 −22,780.000 −16,384.221
  1. Model: mixed multinomial logits modelling eq. 1. Random parameters assumed a normal distribution and estimated based on 5000 Halton draws
  2. SE Standard Error, SD Standard Deviation
  3. a labels Prescribed medication: rate1 (€2/40%), rate2 (€4/50%), rate3 (€7/70%)
  4. * = p-value≤.05, ** = p-value≤.01