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Health Service:

Diagnostic tests


Group:

Forgoing health care

Utilizing health care


Weighting:

Unweighted

Inverse Probability Weighting

Unweighted

Inverse Probability Weighting


Coefficient (SE)

Coefficient (SE)

Coefficient (SE)

Coefficient (SE)


Variable:

Type of payments

Copayments

0.664 (0.116)^{**}

1.041 (0.457)^{*}

0.773 (0.057)^{**}

1.032 (0.234)^{**}

Coinsurances (reference)

− 0.664 (0.116)^{**}

− 1.041 (0.457)^{*}

− 0.773 (0.057)^{**}

− 1.032 (0.234)^{**}

Rate of payments

Rate1 ^{a}

1.123 (0.102)^{**}

1.758 (0.759)^{*}

0.643 (0.033)^{**}

0.841 (0.106)^{**}

Rate2 ^{a}

0.522 (0.089)^{**}

0.202 (0.350)

0.424 (0.030)^{**}

0.334 (0.092)^{**}

Rate3 ^{a} (reference)

−1.646 (0.133)^{**}

−1.959 (0.760)^{*}

− 1.067 (0.042)^{**}

−1.174 (0.150)^{**}

Annual caps on costsharing payment

Half cap

−0.005 (0.055)

0.035 (0.207)

−0.003 (0.022)

0.039 (0.036)

Full cap (reference)

0.005 (0.055)

−0.035 (0.207)

0.003 (0.022)

−0.039 (0.036)

Half cap ^{*} Copayments

−0.050 (0.052)

−0.266 0.240)

− 0.057 (0.019)^{**}

−0.084 (0.063)

Half cap ^{*} Rate1 ^{a}

0.037 (0.081)

0.227 (0.347)

−0.056 (0.033)

−0.103 (0.078)

Half cap ^{*} Rate2 ^{a}

− 0.147 (0.090)

−0.884 (0.363)^{*}

− 0.019 (0.038)

− 0.053 (0.121)

Half cap ^{*} Afterwards billed by health insurer

0.017 (0.057)

0.226 (0.231)

−0.079 (0.020)^{**}

−0.221 (0.079)^{**}

Moment of payment

Afterwards billed by health insurer

0.414 (0.086)^{**}

1.581 (0.831)

3.416 (0.108)^{**}

2.660 (0.390)^{**}

Directly at point of care (reference)

−0.414 (0.086)^{**}

−1.581 (0.831)

−3.416 (0.108)^{**}

−2.660 (0.390)^{**}

Alternative specific constant

Optout option

3.752 (0.146)^{**}

4.503 (1.060)^{**}

0.556 (0.033)^{**}

0.319 (0.247)

SD of random parameters

Copayments

2.702 (0.143)^{**}

2.599 (0.689)^{**}

3.236 (0.092)^{**}

3.480 (0.451)^{**}

Rate1 ^{a}

−1.486 (0.128)^{**}

−2.132 (0.804)^{**}

−0.907 (0.048)^{**}

0.974 (0.161)^{**}

Rate2 ^{a}

1.412 (0.130)^{**}

2.338 (1.035)^{*}

0.827 (0.047)^{**}

0.789 (0.172)^{**}

Afterwards billed by health insurer

1.908 (0.113)^{**}

3.829 (1.098)^{**}

4.690 (0.132)^{**}

4.521 (0.591)^{**}

Model

Number of individuals

738

738

5510

5510

Number of observations

13,284

13,284

99,180

99,180

Loglikelihood

− 3187.780

− 3180.645

−20,580.500

−16,919.590

 Model: mixed multinomial logits modelling eq. 1. Random parameters assumed a normal distribution and estimated based on 5000 Halton draws
 SE Standard Error, SD Standard Deviation
 ^{a} labels Diagnostic tests: rate1 (€40/15%), rate2 (€50/20%), rate3 (€80/30%)
 * = pvalue≤.05, ** = pvalue≤.01