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Table 5 Results from mixed multinomial logits (specialist care)

From: The effect of cost-sharing design characteristics on use of health care recommended by the treating physician; a discrete choice experiment

Health Service: Specialist care
Group: Forgoing health care Utilizing health care
Weighting: Unweighted Inverse Probability Weighting Unweighted Inverse Probability Weighting
Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE)
Variable:
 Type of payments
  -Copayments −0.933 (0.116)** − 0.471 (0.209)* − 0.622 (0.064)** −0.572 (0.227)*
  -Coinsurances (reference) 0.933 (0.116)** 0.471 (0.209)* 0.622 (0.064)** 0.572 (0.227)*
 Rate of payments
  -Rate1 a 0.612 (0.090)** 0.591 (0.180)** 0.508 (0.035)** 0.451 (0.137)**
  -Rate2 a 0.143 (0.079) 0.173 (0.129) 0.244 (0.028)** 0.237 (0.089)**
  -Rate3 a (reference) −0.755 (0.100)** −0.764 (0.264)** −0.752 (0.039)** − 0.689 (0.143)**
 Annual caps on cost-sharing payment
  -Half cap 0.009 (0.059) 0.010 (0.115) −0.024 (0.022) −0.036 (0.045)
  -Full cap (reference) −0.009 (0.059) −0.010 (0.115) 0.024 (0.022) 0.036 (0.045)
  -Half cap * Copayments −0.075 (0.058) −0.069 (0.117) 0.037 (0.020) 0.040 (0.063)
  -Half cap * Rate1 a 0.078 (0.089) −0.023 (0.146) −0.116 (0.034)** − 0.081 (0.106)
  -Half cap * Rate2 a −0.004 (0.095) 0.110 (0.175) 0.006 (0.040) −0.032 (0.128)
  -Half cap * Afterwards billed by health insurer −0.058 (0.058) −0.166 (0.094) − 0.054 (0.021)* 0.046 (0.083)
 Moment of payment
  -Afterwards billed by health insurer 0.595 (0.091)** 0.452 (0.135)** 4.086 (0.125)** 3.554 (0.519)**
  -Directly at point of care (reference) −0.595 (0.091)** −0.452 (0.135)** −4.086 (0.125)** −3.554 (0.519)**
 Alternative specific constant
  -Opt-out option 4.306 (0.141)** 1.491 (0.322)** 1.086 (0.036)** 0.545 (0.251)*
 SD of random parameters
  Copayments 2.467 (0.123)** 3.333 (0.096)** 3.307 (0.445)**
  Rate1 a −0.995 (0.133)** 0.855 (0.288)** −0.869 (0.051)** 1.126 (0.168)**
  Rate2 a 0.017 (0.213) 0.001 (0.001) −0.400 (0.075)** −0.266 (0.326)
  Afterwards billed by health insurer 1.801 (0.098)** 4.929 (0.139)** 4.478 (0.594)**
Model
 Number of individuals 662 662 4702 4702
 Number of observations 11,916 11,916 84,636 84,636
 Log-likelihood − 2172.120 − 3287.581 −17,658.000 −12,680.018
  1. Model: mixed multinomial logits modelling eq. 1. Random parameters assumed a normal distribution and estimated based on 5000 Halton draws
  2. SE Standard Error, SD Standard Deviation
  3. a labels Specialist care: rate1 (€100/5%), rate2 (€140/7%), rate3 (€200/10%)
  4. * = p-value≤.05, ** = p-value≤.01