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Table 2 Comparison of nutrition practices by sector and dietitian accessibility across hemodialysis centers

From: The state of nutrition care in outpatient hemodialysis settings in Malaysia: a nationwide survey

Nutrition Practices All (n = 150) Sector Dietitian Accessibility
Government (n = 34) Private (n = 86) NGO (n = 30) Not available (n = 101) Dedicated dietitian (n = 27) Shared/ visiting dietitian (n = 22)
Nutrition Monitoring
 BMI 46 (30.7%) 15 (44.1%) 22 (25.6%) 9 (30.0%) 26 (25.7%) 12 (44.4%) 8 (36.4%)
 Albumin 150 (100%) 34 (100%) 86 (100%) 30 (100%) 101 (100%) 27 (100%) 22 (100%)
nPCR 49 (32.7%) 11 (32.4%) 28 (32.6%) 10 (33.3%) 34 (33.7%) 9 (33.3%) 6 (27.3%)
 Dietary 9 (6.0%) 1 (2.9%) 5 (5.8%) 3 (10.0%) 5 (5.0%) 2 (7.4%) 2 (9.1%)
 Nutrition Screening Tool nil nil nil nil nil nil nil
Who delivers Nutrition Education?
 Dietitian 48 (32.0%) 27 (79.4%) 13 (15.1%) 8 (26.7%) nil 27 (100%) 22 (100%)
 Medical doctor 149 (99.3%) 34 (100%) 86 (100%) 29 (96.7%) 100 (99.0%) 27 (100%) 22 (100%)
 Nurse 150 (100%) 34 (100%) 86 (100%) 30 (100%) 101 (100%) 27 (100%) 22 (100%)
How is Nutrition Education delivered?
 Individual 103 (68.7%) 22 (64.7%) 62 (72.1%) 19 (63.3%) 75 (74.3%) 17 (63.0%) 11 (50.0%)
 Group sessions 13 (8.7%) 2 (5.9%) 10 (11.6%) 1 (3.3%) 9 (8.9%) 1 (3.7%) 3 (13.6%)
 Both 34 (22.7%) 10 (29.4%) 14 (16.3%) 10 (33.3%) 17 (16.8%) 9 (33.3%) 8 (36.4%)
Recommendation for Renal Specific ONS
 Yes 103 (68.7%) 15 (44.1%) 67 (77.9%) 21 (70.0%) 71 (70.3%) 19 (70.4%) 13 (59.1%)
 Free of charge 10 (9.7%) 7 (46.7%) nil 3 (14.3%) 1 (1.4%) 6 (31.6%) 3 (23.1%)
 Buy from dialysis center 31 (30.1%) 1 (6.7%) 21 (31.3%) 9 (42.9%) 19 (26.8%) 6 (31.6%) 6 (46.2%)
 Buy from outside 62 (60.2%) 7 (46.7%) 46 (68.7%) 9 (42.9%) 51 (71.8%) 7 (36.8%) 4 (30.8%)
Provision of In-center Meals
 Yes 92 (61.3%) 23 (67.6%) 63 (73.3%) 7 (23.3%) 61 (60.4%) 22 (81.5%) 10 (45.5%)
 Full meal 21 (22.8%) 15 (65.2%) 6 (9.5%) nil 6 (9.8%) 11 (50.0%) 4 (40.0%)
 Light meal 71 (77.2%) 8 (34.8%) 57 (90.5%) 7 (100%) 55 (90.2%) 11 (50.0%) 6 (60.0%)
  1. Note: Data is reported as n (%)
  2. Abbreviation: BMI body mass index, NGO non-governmental organization, nPCR normalized protein catabolic rate, ONS oral nutrition supplement