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Table 3 Comparisons of patients’ characteristics and nutrition parameters by sector and dietitian accessibility in Malaysian hemodialysis centers

From: The state of nutrition care in outpatient hemodialysis settings in Malaysia: a nationwide survey

Patient Characteristics and Nutrition Parameters All (n = 4362) Sector p value Dietitian Accessibility p value
Government (n = 1072) Private (n = 1949) NGO (n = 1341) Not available (n = 2618) Dedicated dietitian (n = 934) Shared/ visiting dietitian (n = 810)
Age (year) 55.0 ± 13.53 52.2 ± 14.7 56.8 ± 12.6 54.6 ± 13.5 <  0.001a 55.0 ± 13.00 54.6 ± 14.8 55.5 ± 13.70 0.395
Gender (Male) 2484 (59.6%) 589 (54.9%) 1103 (56.9%) 792 (59.1%) 0.117 1491 (57.0%) 531 (56.9%) 462 (57.0%) 0.997
Dialysis vintage (month) 43.0 (59) 53.5 (78) 34.0 (45) 50.0 (65) <  0.001b 38.0 (51) 50.5 (78) 51.0 (62) <  0.001b
Pre-dialysis creatinine (μmol/L) 840 ± 239 813 (796–831) 822 (813–840) 831 (813–849) 0.431 840 (831–849) 804 (787–822) 822 (804–840) 0.006c
BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 4.7 23.5 (23.2–23.8) 24.6 (24.2–24.9) 23.8 (23.5–24.2) <  0.001d 23.8 (23.5–24.0) 23.9 (23.5–24.3) 24.2 (23.8–24.6) 0.187
Albumin (g/L) 38.8 ± 4.3 39.1 (38.8–39.4) 38.6 (38.3–38.9) 39.4 (39.1–39.7) <  0.001e 38.9 (38.6–39.1) 39.2 (38.8–39.6) 39.0 (38.6–39.3) 0.349
Phosphorus (mmol/L) 1.75 ± 0.45 1.62 (1.58–1.65) 1.84 (1.80–1.87) 1.78 (1.74–1.81) <  0.001f 1.70 (1.67–1.72) 1.74 (1.70–1.78) 1.79 (1.76–1.83) < 0.001g
  1. Univariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, dialysis vintage, Kt/V, number of patients in the center, center sector, and dietitian accessibility was used to compare nutrition parameters. Data of nutrition parameters is presented as adjusted mean (95% confidence interval)
  2. aOne-way ANOVA Test, Bonferroni post hoc test indicates significant difference government vs. private vs. NGO
  3. bKruskal Wallis Test
  4. cBonferroni post hoc test indicates p < 0.05 for pairwise comparison dedicated dietitian vs. no dietitian
  5. dBonferroni post hoc test indicates p < 0.05 for pairwise comparison private vs. government and private vs. NGO
  6. eBonferroni post hoc test indicates p < 0.05 for pairwise comparison private vs. NGO
  7. fBonferroni post hoc test indicates p < 0.05 for all pairwise comparisons
  8. gBonferroni post hoc test indicates p < 0.05 for pairwise comparison shared/visiting dietitian vs. no dietitian and shared/visiting dietitian vs. dedicated dietitian
  9. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, NGO non-governmental organization