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Table 2 Overview of included instruments

From: How is patient involvement measured in patient centeredness scales for health professionals? A systematic review of their measurement properties and content

Name of measure No. of items Subscales Study settings Conceptual frameworka
Person-Centred Climate Questionnaire – Staff version (PCQ-S) [22, 36, 37, 50] 14 1. A climate of safety 2. A climate of everydayness 3. A climate of community Hospital wards at three hospitals in northern Sweden [22] Australian hospital facility [36] Nursing homes in the eastern part of Norway [37] Traditional nursing homes and special care units for people with dementia, Sweden [50] Not included. Referred to several definitions and conceptualizations in the literature without making explicit which one they used.
Patient-Centred Care Competency (PCCC) [39] 17 1. Respecting patients perspectives 2. Promoting patient involvement in care processes 3. Providing for patient comfort 4. Advocating for patients Two teaching hospitals in Seoul, Korea Sees patient-centered care as a global concept that includes knowing and respecting patients’ values, preferences and needs; providing for patients’ physical and emotional comfort; advocating for patients; and promoting partnership between providers and patients in care decisions.
Person-Centred Health Care for Older Adults Survey (PCHCOA) [25] 31 Eight dimensions, not labeled 17 health services (community rehabilitation centers, continence clinics, general medical, geriatric evaluation and management unit, other) across Victoria, Australia Identified five principles underlying person-centered health care based on which the scale was developed: getting to know the patient, sharing power and responsibility, accessibility and flexibility, coordination and integration, and having an environment that is conductive to person-centered care
Person-Centered Care Assessment Tool, (P-CAT) [24, 33, 34, 51, 52] 13 p 1. Extent of personalizing care mount of organizational support 2. Degree of environmental accessibility Long-term aged care facilities in Australia [24] Norwegian residential units for older people [33] Residential elderly care homes in Spain [34] Residental care units for older people in Sweden [51] Residential care facilities in north-western China [52] Not included. Referred to several definitions and conceptualizations in the literature without making explicit which one they used.
Individualized care Scale (ICS-Nurse) [21, 29] 34 1. ICS-A-Nurse (Explores nurses’ view on how they support patient individuality through nursing activities in general) 2. ICS-B-Nurse (Explores the extent to which they perceive the care they provide to patients as individual). Both dimensions have three subscales: Clinical situation, personal life situation, and decisional control over care Inpatient wards in one university, two regional and two psychiatric hospitals, and four health centers [21] One university, two central and two county hospitals [29] Two dimensions of individualized care, as seen from nurses’ perspective, were used to develop the scale: 1) “by exploring nurses’ views about how they support their patient’s individuality through specific nursing activities”, and 2) “by examining how nurses evaluate the maintenance of individuality in the care they provide.”
Person-directed care (PDC) [28, 31, 38] 50 1. Knowing the person 2. Comfort care 3. Autonomy 4. Personhood 5. Support relations 6. Staff work with residents 7. Personal environment for residents 8. Management/structure Long-term care settings (residential care, assisted living and home care settings) in Oregon [31] The Veterans Health Administration Community Living Center [28] Korean nursing homes [38] Based on literature review and consultations with PDC experts (clinicians and providers), the authors identified six central dimensions of PDC: personhood, knowing the person, autonomy and choice, comfort care, nurturing relationship, and supportive environment. The scale development article provides thorough definitions of each dimension [31].
Self-efficacy in patient-centeredness (SEPCQ-27) [32] 27 1. Exploring the patient perspective 2. Sharing information and power 3. Dealing with communicative challenges Two medical schools (Aarhus University, University of Southern Denmark) and two hospitals (Aarhus and Copenhagen University hospitals) Patient-centeredness was defined by three core attributes: 1) consider the patients’ individual experiences, needs, and perspectives; 2) provide patients opportunities to participate in their care; 3) improve the relationship between patient and clinician.
Person-Centered Practices in Assisted Living (PC-PAL) – staff version [26] 62 1. Workforce practices 2. Social connectedness 3. Individualized care and services 4. Atmosphere 5. Caregiver-resident relationships Assisted Residences in North Carolina (small, medium and large communities) Used a conceptual framework set forth by the Center for Excellence in Assisted Living (CEAL) in their Informational Guide for Person-Centered Care in AL (that person-centeredness is built on core values and philosophy, relationships and community, management/ownership/governance, leadership, workforce, services, meaningful life, environment, and accountability).
Individualized Care Inventory (ICI) [27, 30] Short version: 22 Full version: 46 1. Knowing the person/resident 2. Resident autonomy and choice 3. Communication (staff-to-resident communication, and staff-to-staff communication) Long-term care facilities in Victoria and Sidney, British Columbia (BC), Canada [30] LTC facilities in British Columbia health authorities [27] Literature review derived the following definition of individualized care that guided development the scale: Care that reflects 1) the individuality of the resident, i.e., knowing the person/resident, 2) an opportunity for autonomy and choice for the resident, and 3) open communication between staff themselves and between staff and residents.
Patient-centered care (PCC) [23] 27 1. Holistic care 2. Collaborative care 3. Responsive care Acute care institutions in Ontario, Canada Conceptualized PCC as holistic-, collaborative-, and responsive care based on an integrative review of conceptual, empirical, and clinical literature.
Geriatric Care Environment Scale (GCES) [35] 28 1. Aging-Sensitive Care Delivery 2. Resource Availability 3. Institutional Values Regarding Older Adults and Staff 4. Capacity for Collaboration 71 hospitals that are a part of a national program aimed at system improvement to achieve patient-centered care for older adults (Nurses Improving Care for Health System Elders (NICHE)) in New York. Not included
  1. aAll information in this column is based on the original scale development study