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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted effect of household relationships on health seeking behaviour for ARI symptoms among under-fives in sub-Saharan Africa, 2012–2016

From: Household relationships and healthcare seeking behaviour for common childhood illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-national mixed effects analysis

  Unadjusted OR
Caregiver characteristics Western Africa Middle Africa Eastern Africa Southern Africa sub-Saharan Africa
Marital profile
 Never married 1.02 (0.81–1.29) 1.19 (0.89–1.59) 1.15 (0.84–1.58) 0.91 (0.68–1.20) 1.09 (0.95–1.25)
 First order marriage, monogamy 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 First order marriage, polygyny 0.96 (0.85–1.08) 0.86 (0.73–1.02) 0.87 (0.75–1.02) 0.88 (0.69–1.13) 0.90 (0.84–0.97)*
 Higher order marriage, monogamy 0.88 (0.74–1.04) 0.79 (0.64–0.97)* 0.89 (0.62–1.27) 0.84 (0.67–1.06) 0.85 (0.76–0.95)*
 Higher order marriage, polygyny 0.82 (0.68–0.99)* 0.79 (0.60–1.02) 1.04 (0.76–1.44) 0.65 (0.46–0.91)* 0.82 (0.72–0.93)*
 Formerly married 0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.79 (0.61–1.02) 1.02 (0.79–1.33) 0.84 (0.64–1.09) 0.89 (0.78–1.00)
Relationship to household head
 Head 1.04 (0.92–1.19) 0.92 (0.78–1.09) 0.88 (0.74–1.05) 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 1.13 (1.03–1.24)*
 Wife 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Daughter/in-law 1.10 (0.99–1.23) 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.80 (0.63–1.01) 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 1.02 (0.93–1.12)
 Others 1.02 (0.89–1.16) 1.03 (0.83–1.27) 0.76 (0.53–1.09) 1.10 (0.87–1.38) 1.17 (1.03–1.33)*
  Adjusted OR++
Caregiver marital profile
 Never married 0.92 (0.72–1.17) 1.14 (0.85–1.54) 1.07 (0.71–1.61) 0.86 (0.65–1.15) 1.01 (0.88–1.17)
 First order marriage, monogamy 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 First order marriage, polygyny 1.00 (0.88–113) 0.92 (0.77–1.09) 0.79 (0.58–1.09) 0.94 (0.73–1.21) 0.98 (0.89–1.07)
 Higher order marriage, monogamy 0.92 (0.78–1.10) 0.82 (0.66–1.01) 0.97 (0.67–1.41) 0.90 (0.71–1.14) 0.89 (0.80–1.00)
 Higher order marriage, polygyny 0.86 (0.71 (1.05) 0.82 (0.63–1.07) 1.12 (0.66–1.89) 0.71 (0.50–1.00) 0.85 (0.74–0.98)*
 Formerly married 0.83 (0.65–1.07) 0.82 (0.63–1.06) 1.00 (0.71–1.40) 0.86 (0.66–1.13) 0.91 (0.79–1.04)
Relationship to household head
 Head 1.20 (1.02–1.43)* 1.04 (0.85–1.27) 1.04 (0.82–1.32) 1.49 (1.20–1.85)* 1.17 (1.06–1.29)
 Wife 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Daughter/in-law 0.94 (0.81–1.09) 0.92 (0.74–1.13) 0.94 (0.67–1.31) 1.17 (0.93–1.49) 0.95 (0.86–1.05)
 Others 0.99 (0.82–1.18) 0.97 (0.72–1.29) 1.62 (0.96–2.74) 1.89 (1.35–2.66)* 1.11 (0.97–1.27)
Random effects parameters
 Country: Variance (SE) 0.2739 (0.1219) 0.06305 (0.05523) 13.8080 (12.8859) 0.1689 (0.1143) 1.3434 (0.4517)
 Community: Variance (SE) 0.2821 (0.0502) 0.17749 (0.0460) 0.1781 (0.0551) 0.0569 (0.0247) 0.1861 (0.0231)
Model parameters
 Log-likelihood − 5476.2264 − 3326.2409 − 1767.8458 − 2651.6569 −13,310.475
 Wald statistic 148.32 132.1 67.46 88.94 324.54
 p-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. *p < 0.05; ++ based on models adjusted for demographic and socio-economic characteristics