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Table 2 Descriptive survey findings from registered nurses’ and nursing aides’ knowledge and perceived behaviour concerning hand hygiene and infection preventions

From: Nurses’ knowledge, behaviour and compliance concerning hand hygiene in nursing homes: a cross-sectional mixed-methods study

  Percent of “Always” or “Often” (Group means and 95% confidence intervals)
  Complete sample (N = 165) Nursing Aides/ Students (n = 57) Registered Nurses (n = 80)
1. What knowledge do nurses have concerning hand hygiene?
 Could wearing gloves substitute a hand rub? 6.1% ±3.7% 3.8% ±5.3% 10.0% ±6.6%
 Should you rub your hands after taking off gloves? 81.8% ±5.9% 86.5% ±9.4% 81.3% ±8.6%
 Do you ask the registered nurse/geriatric nurse questions concerning hygiene? 46.1% ±7.6% 63.5% a ±13.2% 30.0% a ±10.1%
 Do you ask the nursing aide/nursing assistant questions concerning hygiene? 6.7% ±3.8% 7.7% ±7.3% 3.8% ±4.2%
 Do you ask the hygiene representative nurse questions concerning hygiene? 29.1% ±7.0% 15.4% b ±9.9% 35.0% b ±10.5%
 Do you ask the nursing students questions concerning hygiene? 1.8% ±2.0% 1.9% ±3.8% 1.3% ±2.5%
 Do you ask the residential nurse questions concerning hygiene? 32.7% ±7.2% 36.5% ±13.2% 33.8% ±10.4%
 Do you ask the director of nursing questions concerning hygiene? 21.8% ±6.3% 13.5% ±9.4% 21.3% ±9.0%
 Do you ask the executive director questions concerning hygiene? 9.7% ±4.5% 7.7% ±7.3% 6.3% ±5.3%
 Do you ask the general practitioner questions concerning hygiene? 7.9% ±4.1% 1.9% ±3.8% 11.3% ±7.0%
2. Which behaviours do nurses report in relation to hand hygiene?
 Is it possible to disinfect your hands while taking care of a resident? 72.7% ±6.8% 65.4% ±13.1% 75.0% ±9.5%
 Do you wear hand or arm jewellery during work? 20.6% ±6.2% 19.2% ±10.8% 26.3% ±9.7%
 Does the use of gloves damage your skin? 5.5% ±3.5% 9.6% ±8.1% 3.8% ±4.2%
 Do you apply the content of the last hygiene training in your daily work? 83.6% ±5.7% 82.7% ±10.4% 83.8% ±8.1%
3. What do nurses report about their compliance with hygiene standards?
 Do you apply the hygiene standards? 82.4% ±5.8% 82.7% ±10.4% 82.5% ±8.4%
 Have you ever not disinfected your hands for personal reasons? 3.6% ±2.9% 7.7% ±7.3% 2.5% ±3.4%
 Possible reason: “I had a skin defect.” 1.8% ±2.0% 3.8% ±5.3% 1.3% ±2.5%
 Possible reason: “I was under time pressure” 4.8% ±3.3% 3.8% ±5.3% 5.0% ±4.8%
 Possible reason: “I didn’t think of it.” 3.6% ±2.9% 1.9% ±3.8% 6.3% ±5.3%
 Possible reason: “When my hands are moist with hand rub, I cannot put on the gloves.” 17.0% ±5.7% 15.4% ±9.9% 20.0% ±8.8%
 Possible reason: “My skin does not tolerate the hand rub.” 5.5% ±3.5% 11.5% ±8.8% 3.8% ±4.2%
 Possible reason: “I wear gloves instead of disinfecting my hands.” 6.7% ±3.8% 7.7% ±7.3% 8.8% ±6.2%
 Is adherence to hygiene standards discussed during staff handovers? (For example, in case of existing infectious diseases) 58.8% ±7.5% 65.4% ±13.1% 58.8% ±10.9%
4. What are nurses’ perceptions of organisational structures and processes to improve infection prevention?
 Are suitable gloves always available in your residential area? 93.9% ±3.7% 92.3% ±7.3% 95.0% ±4.8%
 Is there always an accessible stock of gloves on your residential area? 95.2% ±3.3% 92.3% ±7.3% 97.5% ±3.4%
 Is there an accessible stock- pile of protective clothing (gown, mask, and cap) in your residential area? 79.4% ±6.2% 78.8% ±11.2% 77.5% ±9.2%
 Do you remember a situation that prevented you from doing a hand rub for operational reasons? 0.6% ±1.2% 0.0% ±0.0% 1.3% ±2.5%
 Yes, because there was no hand rub available on the corridor of the residential area. 3.0% ±2.6% 0.0% ±0.0% 5.0% ±4.8%
 Yes, because there was no hand rub on the care cart. 0.6% ±1.2% 0.0% ±0.0% 1.3% ±2.5%
 Yes, because there was no hand rub in the work room. 1.2% ±1.7% 0.0% ±0.0% 1.3% ±2.5%
 Yes, because there was no hand rub in the community room. 4.2% ±3.1% 1.9% ±3.8% 7.5% ±5.8%
 Yes, because there was no hand rub at the nursing station. 1.8% ±2.0% 0.0% ±0.0% 2.5% ±3.4%
 Yes, because there was no hand rub in the resident’s room. 19.4% ±6.1% 23.1% ±11.6% 20.0% ±8.8%
5. Do nurses see nursing managers as role models regarding infection prevention? 66.7% ±7.2% 73.1% ±12.2% 63.8% ±10.6%
  1. Note: Fischer’s exact test was used to compare different groups, and only two items resulted in a statistically significant difference between registered nurses and assistant nurses
  2. a- p < 0.001
  3. b- p = 0.016