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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries and percentage tobacco use diagnoses1 in 2001, 2007 and 2014

From: Trends in tobacco use and tobacco cessation counselling codes among Medicare beneficiaries, 2001–2014

  2001 2007 2014
N (%) or Mean (Std) % with tobacco diagnosis ORs N (%) or Mean (Std) % with tobacco diagnosis ORs N (%) or Mean (Std) % with tobacco diagnosis ORs
All 1,190,827 3.61%   1,234,434 5.49%   1,362,211 12.97%  
Age
 66–69 243,110 (20.42%) 4.62% Reference 225,138 (18.24%) 7.14% Reference 326,808 (23.99) 13.01% Reference
 70–74 312,072 (26.21%) 4.39% 0.92 (0.89–0.94) 315,571 (25.56%) 6.54% 0.88 (0.86–0.90) 328,549 (24.12%) 14.22% 1.01 (0.99–1.02)
 75–79 276,067 (23.18%) 3.68% 0.74 (0.71–0.76) 278,436 (22.56%) 5.67% 0.72 (0.70–0.74) 259,600 (19.06%) 13.93% 0.91 (0.90–0.93)
 80–84 190,697 (16.01%) 2.78% 0.54 (0.52–0.56) 217,819 (17.65%) 4.51% 0.55 (0.54–0.57) 205,506 (15.09%) 13.15% 0.81 (0.80–0.83)
 85+ 168,881 (14.18%) 1.52% 0.30 (0.28–0.31) 197,470 (16.00%) 2.74% 0.33 (0.32–0.34) 241,748 (17.75%) 10.01% 0.58 (0.57–0.60)
Gender
 Female 715,118 (60.05%) 2.87% Reference 724,263 (58.67%) 4.42% Reference 815,915 (59.90%) 10.70% Reference
 Male 475,709 (39.95%) 4.71% 1.54 (1.51–1.57) 510,171 (41.33%) 7.00% 1.52 (1.50–1.55) 546,296 (40.10%) 16.35% 1.66 (1.64–1.68)
Race/Ethnicity
 White 1,054,364 (88.54%) 3.71% Reference 1,040,394 (84.28%) 5.70% Reference 1,136,026 (83.40%) 13.42% Reference
 Black 88,485 (7.43%) 3.30% 0.84 (0.81–0.88) 92,454 (7.49%) 5.55% 0.93 (0.90–0.96) 101,084 (7.42%) 13.86% 0.96 (0.94–0.98)
 Hispanic 21,744 (1.83%) 1.89% 0.41 (0.37–0.46) 64,186 (5.20%) 3.21% 0.49 (0.46–0.52) 69,191 (5.08%) 8.46% 0.53 (0.52–0.55)
 Others 26,234 (2.20%) 1.93% 0.46 (0.42–0.50) 37,400 (3.03%) 3.31% 0.54 (0.50–0.57) 55,910 (4.10%) 7.64% 0.52 (0.50–0.54)
Medicaid eligible
 Yes 151,482 (12.72%) 4.40% Reference 167,008 (13.53%) 6.51% Reference 174,648 (12.82%) 16.00% Reference
 No 1,039,345 (87.28%) 3.49% 0.73 (0.71–0.75) 1,067,426 (86.47%) 5.33% 0.78 (0.76–0.80) 1,187,563 (87.18%) 12.52% 0.80 (0.79–0.81)
Elixhauser Comorbidity
 0–1 770,969 (64.74%) 3.36% Reference 699,085 (56.63%) 4.86% Reference 691,542 (50.76%) 9.60% Reference
 2–3 296,602 (24.91%) 3.82% 1.06 (1.04–1.09) 354,357 (28.71%) 6.00% 1.16 (1.14–1.19) 412,131 (30.25%) 13.97% 1.44 (1.42–1.46)
 4+ 123,256 (10.35%) 4.63% 1.07 (1.03–1.10) 180,992 (14.66%) 6.92% 1.09 (1.06–1.120 258,556 (18.98%) 20.37% 1.90 (1.87–1.93)
COPD or Emphysema
 Yes 190,128 (15.97%) 8.85% Reference 204,062 (16.53%) 13.35% Reference 216,620 (15.90%) 30.11% Reference
 No 1,000,699 (84.03%) 2.61% 0.28 (0.27–0.29) 1,030,372 (83.47%) 3.93% 0.27 (0.26–0.28) 1,145,591 (84.10%) 9.73% 0.28 (0.28–0.29)
  1. 1. Tobacco use: identified using ICD-9 codes 305.1, 989.84, and V15.82
  2. 2. Medicaid eligibility status: based on whether the patient was eligible for state buy-in coverage provided by the Medicaid program for at least 1 month or in low-income subsidy part D program during the study year
  3. 3. Elixhauser Comorbidity components: congestive heart failure, valvular disease, pulmonary circulation disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, hypertension, paralysis, other neurological disorders, diabetes-uncomplicated, diabetes-complicated, hypothyroidism, renal failure, liver disease, peptic ulcer disease excluding bleeding, AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), lymphoma, metastatic cancer, solid tumor without metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular diseases, coagulopathy, obesity, weight loss, fluid and electrolyte disorders, blood loss anemia, deficiency anemia, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, psychoses, and depression;
  4. 4. COPD/Emphysema: identified using ICD-9 codes 490, 491, 492, 496